Abnormal Psychology Exam 2

a state of intense elation or irritability accompanied by excessive talkativeness, rapid thoughts, distractibility, gradiose plans, heightened sensitivity, and insensitivity to the negative consequences

mania

shifting from topic to topic in speech

flight of ideas

a less extreme form of mania

hypomania

a disorder that includes a single episode of mania during the course of a persons' life with depression

bipolar I disorder

the less extreme form of bipolar disorder where
a person must have experienced at least one major depressive episode and at least one episode of hypomania

bipolar II disorder

a chronic mood disorder where
the person has frequent but mild symptoms of depression and mild symptoms of mania

cyclothymic disorder

at least four mood episodes per year

rapid cycling

a subtype of MDD in which the person is unable to feel better even momentarily when something good happens, regularly feels worse in the morning and awakens early, and suffers a deepening of other symptoms of depression

melancholic

a system in the brain that
guides pleasure, motivation, and energy in the context of opportunities to obtain rewards

reward system

the precursor of serotonin

tryptophan

a syndrome involved with the over secretion of cortisol

cushing's syndrome

a family member's critical or hostile comments toward or emotional overinvolvement with the person suffering from depression

expressed emotion

a personality trait that involves the tendency to react to events with greater-than-average negative affect. now called "
negative emotionality

neuroticism

negative views of the self, world, and future

Beck's Negative Triad

the tendencies to process information in negative ways

cognitive biases

a disorder that involves depressive and/or manic symptoms

mood disorder

slow thoughts and movements

psychomotor retardation

fidgeting, pacing, and wringing their hands

psychomotor agitation

a disorder of individuals who have experienced an episode of depression. Depression episodes are marked by sadness, loss of pleasure, feelings of worthlessness, guilt, loss of sleep, appetite. Persists for TWO weeks!

major depressive disorder

a term used to describe a type of disorder where symptoms tend to be present for a period of time and then clear

episodic disorder

people who are
chronically depressed more than half of the time for at least TWO YEARS
who feel blue and derive little pleasure from usual activities or pastimes

dysthymic disorder

not enough sun or light in the winter time

seasonal affective disorder

the most important trigger of depression is hopelessness
1. desirable outcomes will not occur
2. the person cannot change the situation

hopelessness theory

the explanations a person forms about why a stressor has occurred

attributions

people believe that negative life events are due to stable and global causes

attributional style

a tendency to repetitively dwell on sad experiences and thoughts or to chew on material again and again

rumination theory

a type of therapy that involves meditation

mindfulness based cognitive therapy

increase participation in positively reinforcing activities so as to disrupt the spiral of depression, withdrawal, and avoidance

behavioral activation

when couples work through depression together

behavioral couples therapy

an approach to managing bipolar disorder which
typically help people learn about the symptoms, expected time course of symptoms, the triggers for symptoms, and treatments

psychoeducational approach

a mood stabilizer used for bipolar disorder. it is a naturally occurring element that needs to be used with great caution

lithium

thoughts of killing oneself

suicide ideation

behaviors that are intended to cause death and actually do so

suicide

behaviors that are meant to cause immediate bodily harm but are not intended to cause death

nonsuicidal self-injury

centers that have call lines and volunteers to prevent suicide

suicide prevention centers

apprehension over an anticipated problem

anxiety

a reaction to immediate danger

fear

a disproportionate fear caused by a specific object or situation, such as flying, snakes, or heights

specific phobia

a persistent, unrealistically intense fear of social situations that might involve being scrutinized or exposed to unfamiliar people

social phobia

a sudden attack of intense apprehension, terror, and feelings of impending doom accompanied by at least four other symptoms

panic attack

a panic attack that occurs unexpectedly without warning

uncued attack

a panic attack that is triggered by specific situations

cued attack

a feeling of being outside of one's body

depersonalization

a feeling that the world is not real

derealization

a phobia defined by anxiety about the inability to flee anxiety-provoking situations (from the greek word "market")

agoraphobia

chronic, excessive, and uncontrollable worry often about minor things

generalized anxiety disorder

symptoms that do not meet full diagnostic criteria

subthreshold symptoms

a Japanese syndrome involves fear of displeasing or embarrassing others

taijin kyofusho

a disorder that occurs among the Inuit people of Western Greenland; sealhunters who are along at sea may experience intense fear, disorientation, and concerns about drowning

kayak-angst

a sudden fear that one's genitals will recede into the body

koro

an intense anxiety and somatic symptoms attributed to the loss of semen

shenkui

fright-illness, the belief that a severe fright has caused the soul to leave the body

susto

Cambodian wind overload

kyol goeu

A fear conditioning model that involves classical and operant conditioning

mowrer's two-factor model

a set of brain structures (hippo, amygdala, medial PFC) involved with fear

fear circuit

this brain structure regulates the amygdala

medial prefrontal cortex

infants that show a tendency to be agitated, distressed, and cry in unfamiliar and novel settings

behavioral inhibition

behaviors that protect against feared consequences

safety behaviors

our fear circuit may have been prepared by evolution to learn fear of certain stimuli like heights, snakes, and angry people

prepared learning

a structure in the brain that
is the major source of norepinephrine
that triggers sympathetic nervous system activity

locus ceruleus

classical conditioning of panic in response to internal bodily sensations

interoceptive conditioning

a test that measures the extent to which people respond fearfully to their bodily sensations. high scores predict the development of panic disorders

anxiety sensitivity index

agoraphobia is driven by negative thoughts about the consequences of experiencing anxiety in public

fear-of-fear

worrying is reinforcing because it distracts from negative emotions and images which allows for the avoidance of more disturbing emotions

Borkovec's cognitive model

the therapist persuades the client to deliberately elicit the sensations associated with panic

panic control therapy

drugs that reduce anxiety

anxiolytics

valium and xanax

benzodiazapenes

tricyclics, ssris, snris

antidepressants

an anxiolytic that enhances learning during exposure treatment

d-cycloserine

a disorder characterized by obsessions and compulsions

obsessive compulsive disorder

intrusive and recurring thoughts, images, or impulses that are persistent and uncontrollable

obsessions

repetitive, clearly excessive behaviors or mental acts that the person feels driven to perform to reduce the anxiety caused by obsessive thoughts or to prevent some calamity from occurring

compulsions

preoccupied with an imagined or exaggerated defect int their appearance. Women focus on their skin, hips, breasts, and legs while men focus on their height, penis size, or body hair

body dysmorphic disorder

a disorder where people hold on to a lot of stuff and do not want to part with any of their objects

hoarding disorder

Three areas associated with OCD
- O_____ C____
-C_____ N_____
-A____ C____ C____

orbitofrontal cortex
caudate nucleus
anterior cingulate cortex

the subjective feeling of knowling

yedasentience

suppressing one's thoughts

thought suppression

_ _ _ are the most commonly used medications for the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders

SRI

the most widely used psychological treatment for the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders is _ _ _

ERP

a stress disorder defined by symptoms of reexperiencing, avoidance, and arousal, but PTSD is either longer lasting or has a delayed onset

posttraumatic stress disorder

a type of stress disorder that
occurs within four weeks after exposure to a traumatic stressor
and characterized by dissociative symptoms as well as reexperiencing, avoidance of reminders, and marked anxiety or arousal

acute stress disorder

a ptsd therapeutic technique where the person deliberately remembers the traumatic event

imaginal exposure

some aspect of cognition or experience becomes inaccessible to consciousness often as an avoidance response

dissociation

the inability to recall important personal information that is usually about a traumatic experience. It is NOT ordinary forgetting nor due to physical injury. It may last hours or years

dissociative amnesia

fugere "to flee" , which is a more sever subtype of amnesia where memory loss is extensive

fugue

memory involving the conscious recall of experiences

explicit memory

memory that is
NOT
consciously recalled

implicit memory

a unique type of memory failure that fails over time and is not linked to stress. generally found in older folks

dementia

a dissociative disorder where
the person loses sense of self and experiences unusual sensory experiences with feelings of detachment or disconnection

depersonalization disorder

a dissociative disorder where
the world becomes unreal and appears strange, peculiar, foreign, and dream like

derealization disorder

a disorder where there are
two ore more distinct and fully developed personalities (alters)

dissociative identity disorder

an etiology theory of DID which states that
DID results form severe psychological and/or sexual abuse in childhood

posttraumatic model

an etiology theory of DID that says
DID is a form of role-play in suggestible individuals

sociocognitive model

a broad class of disorders regarding
excessive concerns about physical symptoms or health

somatoform disorders

visual modules remaining intact while the person lacks conscious awareness of visual cues

blindsight

people intentionally produce physical symptoms to assume the role of a patient

factitious disorder

a history of
many physical complaints
beginning before age 30 years that occur over a period of several years and result in treatment being sought or significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning
-4 pain
-2 GI
-1

somatization disorder

one or more symptoms or deficits affecting
voluntary motor or sensory function that suggest a neurological or general medical condition

conversion disorder

pain in one or more anatomical sites is the predominant focus of the clinical presentation and is of sufficiently severity to warrant clinical attention

pain disorder

preoccupation with fears of having, or the idea that one has, a serious disease based on the person's misinterpretation of bodily symptoms

hypochondriasis

a mental disorder characterized by major disturbances in thought, emotion, and behavior. Disordered thinking, lack of emotional responsiveness, and disturbances in movement or behavior are commonly seen.

schizophrenia

Schizophrenia has three major clusters of symptoms
_____ = things that are present
_____ = things that are absent
_____

positive
negative
disorganized

a kind of positive symptom in Schizophrenics about
firmly held beliefs that are contrary to reality which resist disconfirming evidence.

delusions

the CIA planted a listening device in my head". 65% of schizophrenics have these

persecutory delusions

a delusion where a person thinks someone has planted a thought in their head

thought insertion

a kind of delusion where people think others can hear their thoughts

thought broadcasting

a type of delusion where people think their movements are being controlled by outside forces

outside control

a type of delusion where a person thinks that they are very important and prominent

grandiose delusion

a mild form of paranoid beliefs that other people are focused on them

ideas of reference

sensory experiences in the absence of sensory stimulation

hallucinations

Types of Hallucinations
_____ = 74% have these
_____

auditory
visual

lack of interest, apathy

avolition

the inability to form close personal relationships

asociality

the inability to experience pleasure

anhedonia

exhibits little or no affect in face or voice

blunted affect

reduction in speech

alogia

inability to organize ideas

incoherence

rambles, difficulty sticking to one topic

loose associations

motor abnormalities that often consists of repetitive, complex gestures with excitable, wild flailing of limbs

catatonia

schizophrenic patients who maintain unusual posture for long periods of time

catatonic immobility

limbs can be manipulated and posed by another person

waxy flexibility

____ Schizophrenia
-preoccupation with one or more delusions or frequent auditory hallucinations.
-NONE of the following is prominint = disorg speech, catatonic behavior, or flat/inappropriate affect

paranoid

_____ Schizophrenia
- All of the following are prominent:
� disorganized speech
� disorganized behavior
� flat or inappropriate affect

disorganized

_____ Schizophrenia
-Motoric immobility
-excessive motor activity
-extreme negativism
-echolalia or echopraxia

catatonic

a type of schizophrenia that does not meet criteria for any of the subtypes

undifferentiated

a type of schizophrenia with absence of prominent positive symptoms BUT with ongoing negative symptoms

residual

a mental disorder with the same symptoms as schizophrenia but the symptom duration is greater than 1 month but less than 6

schizophreniform disorder

a mental issue with symptom duration of 1 day to 1 month that is often triggered by extreme stress, such as bereavement

brief psychotic disorder

a unique disorder that has symptoms of both schizophrenia and mood disorder

schizoaffective disorder

a psychotic disorder where the person has delusions (persecutory, jealousy, being followed, erotomania, somatic) but not other symptoms of schizophrenia

delusional disorder

the theory that states schizophrenia is the result of too much dopamine

dopamine theory

_______, which increase dopamine levels, can induce a psychosis

amphetamines

The revised dopamine theory states that there are ___ numbers of dopamine receptors or they are oversensitive

excess

dopamine is localized mainly in the ______ pathway

mesolimbic

Serotonin, GABA, and especially ______ are neurotransmitters that are involved

glutamate

People with schizophrenia have enlarged ____ in the brain, which implies loss of neurons

ventricles

the idea that
the stress of poverty causes schizophrenia

sociogenic hypothesis

the idea that
downward drift in socioeconomic status causes schizophrenia

social selection theory

there is no support for the ______ ____ theory

schizophrenogenic mother

CD stands for

communication deviance

*First Generation AntiPsychotic Medications
� Neuroleptics
-T____
-H____
-N____

Thorazine
Haldol
Navane

C____ is a second-generation antipsychotic

Clozaril

A psychological treatment of schizophrenia where
the person improves attention, memory, problem solving and other cognitive-based symptoms

cognitive enhancement therapy

the amount of pleasure experienced-in-the-moment or in the presence of something pleasurable

consummatory pleasure

the amount of expected or anticipated pleasure from future events or activities

anticipatory pleasure

this type of study begins with one or two biological parents with schizophrenia and follows their offspring longitudinally in order to identify how many of these children may develop schizophrenia and what types of childhood neurobiological and behavioral

familial high-risk study

a study design that identifies people with early, attenuated signs of schizophrenia, most often milder forms of hallucinations, delusions, or disorganization that nonetheless cause impairment.

clinical high-risk study

a technique designed to teach people with schizophrenia how to successfully manage a wide variety of interpersonal situations

social skills training

CET other name

cognitive remediation training