Psychology 2301 Chapter 11

In psychology, the term personality refers to:

an individual's unique and relatively consistent patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving.

Personality theories:

attempt to explain how and why people are similar and different.

Early in his medical career, Freud investigated the anesthetic properties of:

cocaine.

Which definition reflects Freud's view of the id?

the irrational component of personality that seeks immediate gratification

Ego defense mechanisms:

distort thoughts or perceptions of reality.

According to Freud's theory, the Oedipus complex:

is the child's unconscious sexual desire for the opposite-sex parent.

Who were the neo-Freudians?

A group of personality theorists who accepted many of the basic principles of Freudian psychoanalytic theory but went on to develop their personality theories.

The collective unconscious is to _____ as basic anxiety is to _____.

Jung; Horney

According to Alfred Adler, feelings of inferiority:

motivate people to compensate for real or imagined weaknesses.

Humanistic psychology is a view of personality that emphasizes:

the study of psychologically healthy people.

According to reciprocal determinism:

human behavior and personality are caused by the interaction of behavioral, cognitive, and environmental factors.

According to social cognitive theory, the self-system is:

flexible.

Social cognitive theorists tend to believe that people are:

largely responsible for directing and controlling their own behavior.

A trait is formally defined as a(n):

relatively stable, enduring predisposition to behave in a certain way.

Trait theorists tend to believe that:

there are a small number of source traits that represent a universal way of describing individual personality differences.

The "Big Five" are:

neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness.

The field of behavioral genetics studies the:

influence of genes and heredity on behavior.

Graphology is:

a pseudoscience that claims handwriting can reveal personality traits, temperament, intelligence, occupational attributes, and reasoning ability.

Possible selves" refers to:

aspects of the self-concept that reflect images that people hope, fear, or expect to become in the future.

The main strength of projective tests is that:

they provide qualitative information about an individual that can be helpful in psychotherapy.

The emphasis on unconscious mental processes is to _____ as the emphasis on learning and conscious cognitive processes is to _____.

the psychoanalytic perspective; the social cognitive perspective

According to Freud, what was "the royal road to a knowledge of the unconscious activity" of the mind?

the interpretation of dreams

When Carol was 8 years old, her mother died. As an adult, Carol has no memories of attending her mother's funeral. Which ego defense mechanism in Freud's theory would best account for the fact that Carol has no memories of this upsetting event?

repression

Although he stayed calm during the conversation, Mark was angry as he left Professor McArthur's office because he felt he had been treated unfairly. A short while later, Mark snapped at a fellow student who asked if she could borrow his notes. Which ego d

displacement

_____ is a form of _____ in which sexual urges are channeled into productive, socially acceptable, nonsexual activities.

Sublimation; displacement

In Freud's theory, if a parent overindulges or frustrates the child's expression of pleasurable feelings at a particular psychosexual stage of development:

the child may experience fixation and continue to seek pleasure through behaviors associated with the particular psychosexual stage.

Eight-year-old Alex plays almost exclusively with the other boys at his grade school. Alex's behavior suggests that he is in the _____ stage of psychosexual development.

latency

Which of the following statements best describes Jung's notion of archetypes?

Each person inherits mental images that reflect universal human themes.

In psychoanalyst Karen Horney's view, people who move "against" others have a strong need for:

power and feelings of superiority.

Despite the fact that Jacob is actually incompetent at many of the tasks that his job entails, he is constantly bragging about his accomplishments, abilities, and skills. Alfred Adler would probably suggest that Jacob has developed _____ to cover up his w

a superiority complex

Many psychoanalytic ideas are difficult to test because:

they cannot be operationally defined and objectively measured.

Humanistic psychologist Carl Rogers contended that the most basic human motive is:

the actualizing tendency.

Spencer has always considered himself to be an honest person. So when he walked into the empty classroom and found a wallet that contained a hundred dollars in cash, he took it to the campus security office. According to Carl Rogers's theory of personalit

his desire to act in a way that was consistent with his self-concept.

Four-year-old Brooke throws a tantrum when her parents want to leave the playground and go home. Instead of punishing her, Brooke's parents patiently and lovingly try to teach Brooke a more acceptable way of coping with disappointment and frustration. Usi

unconditional positive regard

Humanistic theories of personality have helped promote the scientific study of:

creativity and the healthy personality.

According to Bandura's theory, which of the following factors is likely to contribute to the self-regulation of behavior?

observing other people's behavior and the consequences of their actions

Gillian's club is planning a 5K race as a fund-raiser. Because Gillian had never run in a race before, she was certain that she would not be able to complete the 5K and instead volunteered to screen and register the runners. How might the social cognitive

Gillian has a strong sense of self-efficacy when it comes to talking to people and writing down information, but she has a weak sense of self-efficacy when it comes to running in a race.

Dr. Barkulis is a trait theorist. He would be most likely to describe an individual in terms of her:

unique combination of characteristics or attributes.

Raymond Cattell used a statistical technique called _____ to sort through a large number of personality traits and identify those that represented the most basic dimensions of personality.

factor analysis

According to Eysenck's theory, the four basic personality types are:

extraverted-neurotic; extraverted-stable; introverted-neurotic; and introverted-stable.

The Focus on Neuroscience described an fMRI study that investigated how people with different personality traits responded to positive and negative images. What was the major conclusion of this study?

Specific personality traits are associated with individual differences in the brain's response to emotional stimuli.

The "Big Five" are:

neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness.

Your textbook describes a research study that was designed to test the ability of graphologists to use handwriting samples to distinguish among occupational groups. What were the results of this study?

The graphologists predicted that they would be 100 percent accurate in distinguishing among occupational groups, but their overall performance was only slightly better than that of untrained evaluators.

Two self-report inventories that were originally designed to assess the personality characteristics of normal populations are:

the California Personality Inventory (CPI) and the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF).

Dylan wishes to apply the research on "possible selves" to help him become more motivated in college. As a first step, he should:

become consciously aware of the possible selves that he already holds and evaluate their effect on him.