Psychology Chapter 11

The study of continuity and change across the life span.

Developmental Psychology

A fertilized egg that contains chromosomes from both a sperm and an egg.

Zygote

The 2-week period of prenatal development that begins at conception.

Germinal Stage

The period of prenatal development that lasts from the second week until about the eigth week.

Embryonic Stage

During what stage of pregnancy does the zygote go from the fallopian tube to implanting itself onto the wall of the uterus?

Germinal Stage

At the end of the germinal stage when the zygote becomes an embryo, how long is the embryo, and what parts of the body does the embryo have?

1 inch; heartbeat, legs, and arms develop

What hormone do embryos with an x and y chromosome begin to produce?

Testosterone

The period of prenatal development that lasts from the ninth week until birth.

Fetal Stage

When does the size of the fetus increase rapidly, insulating layer of fat develop beneath the skin, and digestive and respiratory systems mature?

last 3 months of fetal stage.

When do the cells that ultimately become the brain divide quickly?

Around 3rd/4th week of conception

The formation of a fatty sheath around the axons of a neuron.

Myelination

By what time is the divison of cells that become the brain more or less complete in fetal stage?

at 6 months

About what percent is the size of a newborn's brain compared to that of an adult?

25% of an adult sized brain

The organ that physically links the bloodstreams of the mother and the developing embryo or fetus and permits the exchange of materials.

Placenta

Agents that damage the process of development, such as drugs and viruses.

Teratogens

What is the most common teratogen?

Alcohol

A developmental disorder that stems from heavy alcohol use by the mother during pregnancy.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)

The stage of development that begins at birth and lasts between 18 and 24 months.

Infancy

The emergence of the ability to execute physical action. (ex: reaching, grasping, crawling, and walking)

Motor Development

Specific patterns of motor response that are triggered by specific patterns of sensory stimulation.

Reflexes

What are the two general rules that sophisticated behaviors tend to follow?

Cephalocaudal Rule and Proximodistal Rule

The "top-to-bottom" rule that describes the tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from the head to the feet.

Cephalocaudal Rule

The "inside-to-outside" rule that describes the tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from the center to periphery.

Proximodistal Rule

The emergence of the ability to think and understand.

Cognitive Development

What was Jean Piaget's take on cognitive development of children?

Children move through discrete stages of cognitive development.

What were Piaget's four stages of Cognitive Development?

Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete Operational, and Formal Operational.

A stage of development that begins at birth and lasts through infancy in which infants acquire information about the world by sensing it and moving around within it.

Sensorimotor Stage

Theories about or models of the way the world works.

Schemas

The process by which infants apply their schemas in novel situations.

Assimilation

The process by which infants revise their schemas in light of new information.

Accomodation

The idea that objects continue to exist even when they are not visible.

Object Permanence

The stage of development that begins at about 18-24 months and lasts until adolescence, which begins between 11-14 years.

Childhood

The stage of development that begins at about 2 years and ends at about 6 years, in which children have a preliminary understanding of the physical world.

Preoperational Stage

The stage of development that begins at about 6 years and ends at about 11 years, in which children learn how various actions or "operations" can affect or transform "concrete" objects.

Concrete Operational Stage

The notion that the quantitative properties of an object are invariant despite changes in the objects appearance.

Conservation

The tendency to focus on just one property of an object to the exclusion of all others.

Centration

What are the two reasons preoperational kids can't grasp the concept of conservation?

Centration and Reversibility

The stage of development that begins around the age of 11 and lasts through adulthood in which people can solve nonphysical problems.

Formal Operational Stage

The failure to understand that the world appears differently to different observers.

Egocentricism

The idea that human behavior is guided by mental representations

Theory of Mind

The emotional bond that forms between newborns and their primary caregivers.

Attachment

A behavioral test developed by Mary Ainsworth that is used to determine a child's attachment style.

Strange Situation

A set of beliefs about the self, the primary caregiver, and the relationship between them.

Internal Working Model of Relationships

Characteristic patterns of emotional reactivity.

Temperaments

What are the three observations Piaget made about Children's development of morals?

1. moral thinking shifts from realism to relativism.
2. moral thinking shifts from prescriptions to principles.
3. moral thinking shifts from outcomes to intentions.

A stage of moral development in which morality of an action is primarily determined by its consequences for the actor. (stage that most kids are at)

Preconventional Stage

A stage of moral development in which the morality of an action is determined by the extent to which it confirms social rules (stage during time of adolescence)

Conventional Stage

A stage of moral development at which the morality of an action is determined by a set of general principles that reflect core values. (stage of most adults)

Postconventional Stage

What are Lawrence Kohlberg's 3 stages of moral reasoning procession.

Preconventional stage, conventional stage, and postconventional stage.

The period of development that begins with the onset of sexual maturity (about 11-14 years of age) and lasts until the beginning of adulthood (about 18-21 years of age)

Adolsescence

The bodily changes associated with sexual maturity.

Puberty

Bodily structures that are directly involved in reproduction.

Primary sex characteristics

Bodily structures that change dramatically with sexual maturity but that are not directly involved in reproduction.

Secondary Sex Characteristics

The stage of development that begins around 18-21 years and ends at death.

Adulthood