Psyc 273 ch 4


- inborn, automatic response to a particular form of stimulation
(eye blink)

Rooting, Sucking, Swimming

Rooting- stroke cheek near corner of mouth, babies head turns toward source of stimulation (3 weeks) helps infant breastfeed
Sucking- permits feeding
Swimming- 4-6 months


- drop baby slightly or loud sound, infant makes embracing motion by arching back, throwing arms outward (6 months)

Palmar Grasp

- infant can hold own weight, grabs onto your finger (3-4 months)

Tonic Neck

- turn babies head to one side while infant lying down, goes in fencing position: one arm extended in front of eyes on side to which head is turned, other arm flexed


- hold infant under arms, stepping response (2 months)


- stroke sole of foot from toe to heel, toes fan out and curl as foot twists in (8-12 months)

Sleep Patterns- REM sleep

REM sleep- brain-wave activity is similar to waking state. Heart rate, blood pressure uneven, eyes dart (most time spent, 50 percent of babies sleep time, vital for growth of nervous system)

Sleep Patterns: NREM sleep

NREM sleep- body is motionless; heart rate, breathing, and brain activity are regular and slow
Sleep moves to an adult-like night-day schedule during the first year.
Sleep needs decline from 18 to 12 hours a day by age 2.
Changes due to brain development


-Co-sleeping occurs in 90% of the world

Classical Conditioning

- in form of learning, a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that leads to a reflexive response, once baby's nervous system makes connection b/w two stimulus, the new stimulus will produce itself (environment becomes more predictable)

UCS ex. and UCR ex.

Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) must consistently produce a reflective unconditioned reflex (UCR)
Ex: stimulus breat milk (UCS) resulted in sucking (UCR)

Neutral Stimulus

Neutral stimulus presented at same time as UCS
Ex: mother strokes forhead when feeding

CS and CR examples, what is extinction?

If learning has occurred the neutral stimulus is now the conditioned stimulus (CS) and response to that is conditioned response (CR)
Ex: baby has been conditioned b/c stoking outside the feeding situation (CS) results in sucking (CR)
If Cs is presented al

Habituation & Recovery

Reduction in the strength of response due to repetitive stimulus (HR, looking, sucking)
New stimulus causes recovery�where response goes back to a high level�novelty preference
Can help determine cognitive abilities, memory, and knowledge

Fine Motor & Gross Motor development in infancy-

"Head to tail"
Head before arms and trunk, which are before legs
From the center of the body outward
Control of head and trunk before arms and legs

Development of reaching

Prereaching newborn
-With two hands, then one
Ulnar Grasp- grab and drag to them, 3-4 months
-Adjust grip to object
-Move objects from hand to hand 4-5months
Pincer Grasp- pinch, pick up cheerios 9months

Visual Cliff
Pattern preferences & visual acuity

3 weeks
� Poor contrast sensitivity
� Prefers large simple patterns
2 months
� Can detect detail in complex patterns
� Scans internal features of patterns
4 months
�Can detect patterns even if boundaries are not really present
12 months
�Can detect object

Newborn Sense of Vision

Least developed of senses at birth
Unable to see long distances, focus clearly
Scan environment and try to track interesting objects
Color vision improves in first two months

Senses: Touch

Newborns: reflex responses to touch on mouth, palms, soles, genitals
- Later, exploratory mouthing
- Pleasurable touch
releases endorphins
Sensitive to pain
- Pain can affect later behavior
- Relieve pain with anesthetics,
sugar, gentle holding

Senses: Smell andTaste

Prefer sweet tastes at birth
Quickly learn to like new tastes
Have odor preferences from birth
-Affected by mother's diet during pregnancy
Can locate odors and identify mother by smell from birth

Senses: Hearing

Can hear a wide variety of sounds at birth
Prefer complex sounds to pure tones
Learn sound patterns within days
Sensitive to voices and biologically prepared to learn language
4 - 7 months
Sense of musical phrasing
6 - 8 months
� "Screen out" so