Psych Quiz One

Wilhelm Wundt

in 1879 founded first psychology laboratory in world at University of Leipzig in Germany; introspection, basic units of experience; defines psychology as scientific study of conscious experience


the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements; Titchener

William James

founder of functionalism; studied how humans use perception to function in our environment; wrote first psychology textbook - The Principles of Psychology; "stream of consciousness

stream of consciousness

continuous flow of thoughts; William James


psychology should investigate the functions of consciousness rather than its structure

G. Stanley Hall

1st president of American Psychological Association

American Psychological Association

becomes world's largest organization devoted to advancement of psychology, with over 90,000 members

Ivan Pavlov

Russian physiologist; with dogs, shows how stimulus-response bonds can be formed; classical conditioning; he paves way for behaviorism

classical conditioning

a neutral stimulus acquires the ability to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus


scientific psychology should study only observable behavior

Alfred Binet

French psychologist; develops 1st successful intelligence test; helps foster eventual emergence of applied psychology

applied psychology

branch of psychology concerned with everyday, practical problems

Margaret Floy Washburn

1st woman to receive a Ph.D. in psychology; publishes The Animal Mind, which leads to emergence of behaviorism and rise of animal research in psychology

Sigmund Freud

austrian physician whose work focused on the unconscious causes of behavior and personality formation; founded psychoanalysis

psychoanalytic theory

attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior

John B. Watson

believes mental processes are not suitable subject for scientific study because they cannot be observed; psychology should redefine itself as science of behavior; launches behaviorism and contributes to growth of animal research

Lewis Terman

professor at Stanford who revised the Binet test for Americans to the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test in 1916; also known for his longitudinal research on gifted kids.

Max Wertheimer

German psychologist who founded gestalt psychology

Gestalt psychology

the whole is greater than the sum of its parts; focuses mainly on study of perception

clinical psychology

branch of psychology concerned with diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders; caused by World War II and its aftermath


emphasizes unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth

Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow

fueled humanism

B.F. Skinner

wrote Science and Human Behavior, pioneer of operant conditioning who believed that everything we do is determined by our past history of rewards and punishments; famous for use of his operant conditioning aparatus which he used to study schedules of rein

cognitive psychology

perspective that focuses on the mental processes involved in perception, learning, memory, and thinking; Noam Chomsky, George Miller, Herbert Simon

Stanley Milgram

publishes work on obedience to authority; causes social psychology to emerge as major area of research

evolutionary psychology

led by David Buss, Leda Cosmides & John Tooby; asserts that the patterns of behavior seen in a species are products of natural selection in the same way that anatomical characteristics are

Martin Seligman

launches positive psychology movement

positive psychology

calls for increased research on resilience, well-being, human strengths, and positive emotions


the awareness of immediate experience

Edward Titchener

Englishmen who hoped to identify and examine the fundamental components of conscious experience, such as sensations, feelings, and images; structuralism


the careful, systematic self-observation of one's own conscious experience


contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior


any overt (observable) response or activity by an organism


the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge

Jean Piaget

focused on study of children's cognitive development


tendency to view one's own group as superior to others and as the standard for judging the worth of foreign ways


the science that studies behavior and the physiological and cognitive processes that underlie it, and it is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems

developmental psychology

looks at human development across a life span

social psychology

interpersonal behavior and the role of social forces in governing behavior; attitude formation, attitude change, prejudice, conformity, attraction, aggression, intimate relationships, behavior in groups

educational psychology

how people learn and best ways to teach them; curriculum design, teacher training, achievement testing, student motivation, classroom diversity

health psychology

how psychological factors relate to promotion and maintenance of physical health and the causation, prevention, and treatment of illness

physiological psychology

influence of genetic factors on behavior and role of brain, nervous system, endocrine system and bodily chemicals in regulation of behavior

experimental psychology

focused heavily on sensation, perception, learning, conditioning, motivation, emotion

cognitive psychology

higher" mental processes, like memory, reasoning, information processing, language, problem solving, decision making, creativity


measurement of behavior and capacities, through development of psychological tests; design of tests to assess personality, intelligence and a wide range of abilities; development of new techniques for statistical analysis


describing and understanding individuals' consistency in behavior; factors that shape personality and personality assessment


knowledge should be acquired through observation


branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders; medical school


widely shared customs, beliefs, values, norms, institutions, and other products of a community that are transmitted socially across generations

multifactorial causation of behavior

behavior is governed by a complex network of interacting factors