Psychological Science Chapter 15


the generic name given to formal psychological treatment

biological therapies

treatment based on medical approaches to illness and to disease


The goal of psychoanalysis; a patient's awareness of his or her own unconscious psychological processes and how these processes affect daily functioning

client-centered therapy

an empathic approach to therapy; it encourages people to fulfill their individual potentials for personal growth through greater self-understanding

behavior therapy

treatment based on the premise that behavior is learned and therefore can be unlearned through the use of classical and operant conditioning

cognitive therapy

treatment based on the idea that distorted thoughts produce maladaptive behaviors and emotions; treatment strategies attempt to modify these thought patterns

cognitive reconstructing

A therapy that strives to help patients recognize maladaptive thought patterns and replace them with ways of viewing the world that are more in tune with reality

cognitive behavioral therapy

a therapy that incorporates techniques from cognitive therapy and behavior therapy to correct faulty thinking and change maladaptive behaviors


a cognitive-behavioral therapy technique that involves repeated exposure to an anxiety-producing stimulus or situation

expressed emotion

a pattern of negative actions by a client's family members; the pattern includes critical comments, hostility directed toward the client by family members, and emotional overinvolvement

systems approach

part of family therapy; individual is part of a larger context; any change in one person will affect the entire family

systematic desensitization

a type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli; commonly used to treat phobias

rational-emotional therapy

this therapy created by Albert Ellis indentifies irrational thinking and disputes them

mindfullness-based cognitive therapy

people who recover from depression continue to be vulnerable to faulty thinking when they experience negative moods

motivational interviewing

Client-centered therapy; Very short period - 1 or 2 interviews. Valuable treatment for drug and alcohol abuse, and for increase in healthy habits.

psychotropic medications

drugs that affect mental processes

anti-anxiety drugs

a class of psychotropic medications used for the treatment of anxiety

electroconvulsive therapy

a procedure that involves administering a strong electrical current to the patient's brain to produce a seizure; it is effective for some cases of severe depression


A class of psychotropic medications used for the treatment of schizophrenia and other disorders that involve psychosis


a class of psychotropic medications used to treat depression

dialectual behavior therapy

a form of therapy used to treat borderline personality disorder

applied behavioral analysis

an intensive treatment for autism, based on operant conditioning


a selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor commonly prescribed as an antidepressant


medications that are used in depression and anxiety disorders; they increase the level of serotonin without the side effects of MAOIs; Prozac is an example.


an antipsychotic drug used as a sedative and for treatment-resistant schizophrenia

transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)

powerful electrical current produces a magnetic field which interrupts the neural function in that region of the brain

deep brain stimulation (DBS)

electrodes are surgically implanted deep within the brain; mild electricity is then used to stimulate the brain at an optimal frequency an intensity

randomized clinical trial

can establish whether a particular treatment is effective...people at random are either given treatment or not...relates to placebo effect

cognitive restructuring

addresses ways of reacting to the symptoms of a panic attack; helps clients recognize the irrationality of their fears

MAO inhibitors

effective but are generally reserved for patients who do not respond to other antidepressants


extremely effective antidepressants, but they have a umber of unpleasant side effects


acts as a major tranquilizer, reduces anxiety, sedates without inducing sleep, decreases the severity and frequency of the positive symptoms


is chemically different and has less of a sedating effect than chlorpromazine

conduct disorder

a childhood condition known to be a precursor to antisocial personality disorder