Chapter 5 definitions

aversion therapy

A form of behavior therapy that attempts to reduce the attractiveness of a desired event by associating it with an aversive stimulus.

compensatory-response model

A model of conditioning in which a CS that has been repeatedly associated with the primary response (a-process) to a US will eventually come to elicit a compensatory response (b-process).

counterconditioning

The procedure whereby a CS that elicits one type of response is associated with an event that elicits an incompatible response.

flooding therapy

A behavioral treatment for phobias that involves prolonged exposure to a feared stimulus, thereby providing maximal opportunity for the conditioned fear response to be extinguished.

incubation

The strengthening of a conditioned fear response as a result of brief exposures to the aversive CS.

overexpectation effect

The decrease in the conditioned response that occurs when two separately conditioned CSs are combined into a compound stimulus for further pairings with the US.

preparatory-response theory

A theory of classical conditioning that proposes that the purpose of the CR is to prepare the organism for the presentation of the US.

preparedness

An inherited predisposition within a species to learn certain kinds of associations more easily than others.

reciprocal inhibition

The process whereby certain responses are incompatible with each other, and the occurrence of one response necessarily inhibits the other.

Rescorla-Wagner theory

A theory of classical conditioning that proposes that a given US can support only so much conditioning and that this amount of conditioning must be distributed among the various CSs available.

S-R (stimulus-response) model

As applied to classical conditioning, this model assumes that the NS becomes directly associated with the UR and therefore comes to elicit the same response as the UR.

S-S (stimulus-stimulus) model

A model of classical conditioning that assumes that the NS becomes directly associated with the US, and therefore comes to elicit a response that is related to that US.

selective sensitization

An increase in one's reactivity to a potentially fearful stimulus following exposure to an unrelated stressful event.

stimulus-substitution theory

A theory of classical conditioning that proposes that the CS acts as a substitute for the US.

systematic desensitization

A behavioral treatment for phobias that involves pairing relaxation with a succession of stimuli that elicit increasing levels of fear.

temperament

An individual's base level of emotionality and reactivity to stimulation that, to a large extent, is genetically determined.