Biological Psyc Ch 9 Study

What is one of the contradictions in "paradoxical" sleep?

The brain is very active, while many of the muscles are deeply relaxed.

Axons from the locus coeruleus release ____ widely throughout the cortex

norepinephrine

A couple of paths from the hypothalamus release histamine, thereby:

increasing arousal

Sometimes people find themselves unable to move their postural muscles immediately after awakening. Why?

Part of the brain is still asleep

What is a defining criterion for insomnia?

a person who consistently feels sleepy during the day

Alteration of the per gene in humans is associated with:

shortened circadian rhythms.

After a cut through the midbrain separates the forebrain and part of the midbrain from all the lower structures, an animal:

enters a prolonged state of sleep

After cutting each of the individual tracts that enter the medulla and spinal cord, depriving the brain of almost all sensory input, an animal:

continues to have periods of wakefulness and sleep

What is activated by the reticular formation?

wide regions of the entire cerebral cortex

Mice that lack orexin have difficulty:

maintaining wakefulness

Which of the following is NOT true regarding hibernation and sleep?

They increase body temperature

Which of the following is NOT a common characteristic of narcolepsy?

involuntary movements of the limbs during sleep

What is the principal Zeitgeber for land animals?

light

A "Zeitgeber" is a(n):

environmental cue that resets a biological clock

self-generated rhythm that lasts about a day.

endogenous circadian rhythm

self-generated rhythm that lasts about a year

endogenous circannual rhythm

a disruption of circadian rhythms due to crossing time zones

jet lag

experiences of intense anxiety from which a person awakens screaming in terror; more severe than a nightmare

night terrors

a condition characterized by frequent periods of sleepiness during the day

narcolepsy

neurotransmitter that increases wakefulness and arousal

orexin (hypocretin)

What does the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) do?

part of the hypothalamus; provides the main control of the circadian rhythms for sleep and body temperature

What does the pontomesencephalon contribute to?

cortical arounsal

12 to 14 Hz brain waves in bursts that last at least half a second

sleep spindle

stages 3 and 4 of sleep, which are occupied by slow, large-amplitude brain waves

slow-wave sleep (SWS)

a combination of EEG and eye movement records

polysomnograph

a sharp brain wave associated with temporary inhibition of neuronal firing. What stage does this happen?

K-Complex; Stage 4

says a dream represents the brain's effort to make sense of sparse & distorted info

activation-synthesis hypothesis

theory that state that dreams being with arousing stimuli that are generated within the brain combined with recent memories & any info the brain is receiving from the senses

clinical anatomical hypoptheis

The retinohypothalamic pathway receives input from the:

retinal ganglion cells that respond directly to light

What do the EEG waves look like when brain activity is "desynchronized"?

irregular waves with low amplitude

Aside from the problems with failing to breathe at times during the night, people with sleep apnea are also found to have:

fewer neurons in certain brain areas

People with REM sleep disorder most likely have:

damage in the pons and midbrain

When does sleep walking occur?

during both stage 3 and 4 sleep

Which of the following is NOT true regarding hibernation and sleep?

They increase body temperature

When the PER and TIM levels increase, they feed back to inhibit the genes that produce the ____ molecules

messenger RNA

Similar to the effects of sleep apnea, rats that are repeatedly oxygen-deprived lose neurons throughout the cortex and hippocampus, causing impairments in:

learning and memory

Why will taking a melatonin pill in the evening have little effect on sleepiness?

The pineal gland produces melatonin at that time anyway

Which of the following physical conditions is related to apnea?

Being obese

Psychologists in the early to mid part of the 20th century had difficulty with the notion that wake and sleep cycles were generated from within the body because:

they accepted the theory that all behaviors were responses to stimuli.

Night terrors are most common in ____ during ____.

children; NREM sleep

The EEG record for REM sleep is most similar to which other sleep stage?

stage 1

Compared to the earlier part, the later part of a night's sleep

includes a larger percentage of REM sleep

During ____, cells in the pons send messages that inhibit the motor neurons that control the body's large muscles.

REM sleep

The role of the reticular formation in arousal is that it is:

only one of several systems involved in arousal

Repeated involuntary movements of the arms and legs that may prevent a person from falling asleep are known as:

periodic limb movement disorder