Psych Exam #2

_____ is the decrease in response to a stimulus that occurs after repeated presentations of the same stimulus.
Habituation
Sensation
Disinhibition
Conservation

Habituation

_____ is credited with laying the foundation for the study of classical conditioning in psychology.
Pavlov
Skinner
Thorndike
Watson

Pavlov

_____ is a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to bring about a response after it is paired with a stimulus that naturally brings about that response.
Classical conditioning
Operant conditioning
Observational learning
Instrumental condition

Classical conditioning

In Pavlov's study, the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) was _____; the neutral stimulus was _____; and, finally, the conditioned stimulus (CS) was _____.
meat; the bell; the bell
meat; the bell; meat
the bell; meat; meat
meat; meat; the bell

meat; the bell; the bell

Alexis uses cocaine, which activates her sympathetic nervous system. Expecting her dealer, her hands shake and her heart pounds when she hears a knock on the door. Which alternative below CORRECTLY identifies the neutral stimulus, the CS, and the UCS?
Neu

Neutral stimulus�knock on the door; CS�knock on the door; UCS�cocaine

In classical conditioning, how are the neutral stimulus and the conditioned response related?
The neutral stimulus becomes the conditioned stimulus.
They are the same thing; the terms are interchangeable.
They are not related; they are completely differen

The neutral stimulus becomes the conditioned stimulus.

Which pair below CORRECTLY identifies a stimulus or response in Watson and Rayner's "Little Albert" study?
Unconditioned stimulus�noise
Conditioned stimulus� fear
Unconditioned response�rat
Neutral stimulus�fear

Unconditioned stimulus�noise

What did Little Albert end up becoming afraid of, which was a surprise to both Watson and Rayner?
A white furry jacket
A white rabbit
Santa's beard
All of the above

All of the above

_____ occurs when a previously conditioned response decreases in frequency and eventually disappears.
Extinction
Habituation
Adaptation
Deconditioning

Extinction

Which of the following sequences CORRECTLY arranges the phases of the classical conditioning process, from first to last?
Acquisition -> extinction -> spontaneous recovery
Acquisition -> spontaneous recovery -> extinction
Spontaneous recovery -> acquisiti

Acquisition -> extinction -> spontaneous recovery

Which of the following scenarios best exemplifies spontaneous recovery?
Alexa is a former cocaine user in recovery. After a relapse, though, her hands shake and her heart pounds when she hears a car pull into her drive, like her dealer used to do in his c

Alexa is a former cocaine user in recovery. After a relapse, though, her hands shake and her heart pounds when she hears a car pull into her drive, like her dealer used to do in his car.

Rosa becomes anxious when she enters the examination room at the clinic before a blood test. She also squirms when she views injections on television. This illustrates:
stimulus generalization.
observational learning.
spontaneous recovery.
stimulus discri

stimulus generalization

Typically long pauses in responding are found in _____ schedules.
fixed-interval
fixed-ratio
variable-interval
variable-ratio

fixed-interval

Which of the following sequences best reflects the order in which memory processes occur, from first to last?
Encoding -> storage -> retrieval
Storage -> retrieval -> encoding
Encoding -> retrieval -> storage
Storage -> encoding -> retrieval

Encoding -> storage -> retrieval

When answering such questions as "Who was your date to the Junior Prom?" or "Which costume did you wear last Halloween?" you are relying most explicitly on the memory process of:
retrieval.
encoding.
potentiation.
storage.

retrieval

Which of the following is true of sensory memory?
Sensory memory can store an almost exact replica of each stimulus to which it is exposed.
The precision of sensory memory is low due to its brief duration.
Sensory memory permits us to keep information in

Sensory memory can store an almost exact replica of each stimulus to which it is exposed.

A research participant is required to report as much of a poem as he can remember, immediately after having read the poem once. We would expect the greatest number of recall errors in lines:
in the middle of the poem.
at the beginning of the poem.
at the

in the middle of the poem.

Grouping pieces of information together to expand the effective capacity of short-term memory is termed _____.
chunking
clumping
consolidating
compacting

chunking

We look up a number in the phone book, push the book away, and then begin to dial the number. Why do we discourage an interruption during this process?
Information lasts only 15-25 seconds in short-term memory.
Information lasts only 5-6 seconds in short-

Information lasts only 15-25 seconds in short-term memory.

_____ memory is defined as a memory system that holds information temporarily while actively manipulating and rehearsing that information.
Working
Semantic
Long-term
Declarative

Working

Which of the following best describes the effect of stress on working memory capacity?
Stress can reduce the effectiveness of working memory by reducing its capacity.
Stress has no effect on the capacity of working memory.
Stress increases the capacity of

Stress can reduce the effectiveness of working memory by reducing its capacity.

When you try to list all the classes you've ever taken in college, chances are you will recall your last few classes particularly well. What is this phenomenon called?
Recency effect
Primacy effect
Chunking
Memory consolidation

Recency effect

Which of the following refers to declarative memory?
Memory for names
Memory for habits
Memory for skills
Memory for how to do things

Memory for names

Cory knows that the capital of Vermont is Montpelier. This is an example of _____ memory.
semantic
episodic
procedural
non-delcarative

semantic

What's the difference between repressed memories and recovered memories?
repressed memories are common in trauma; recovered memories are a terrible blight on the field of psychology
recovered memories are common in trauma; repressed memories are a terribl

repressed memories are common in trauma; recovered memories are a terrible blight on the field of psychology

_____ psychology is the branch of psychology that focuses on the study of higher mental processes, including thinking, language, memory, problem solving, knowing, reasoning, and judging.
Cognitive
Existential
Pavlovian
Behavioral

Cognitive

Dr. Randazza shows participants a stylized map of a fictitious city. The map includes landmarks, such as a post office, a library, a shopping mall, a bus depot, and an airport. Some of the landmarks are close together, such as the library and the post off

Participants should take longer to travel mentally between distant than between close landmarks. This result would suggest that mental imagery reflects the actual actions the participants perform with respect to real objects.

Clint is mentally rehearsing his golf swing in his mind's eye. Based on mental imagery, which of the following statements is most accurate?
Clint's mental rehearsal should improve his golf swing. Performing the task involves the same network of brain cell

Clint's mental rehearsal should improve his golf swing. Performing the task involves the same network of brain cells as the network used in mentally rehearsing it.

Mental groupings of objects, events, or people that share common features are called:
algorithms
heuristics
ideas
concepts

concepts

According to the _____ heuristic, we assume that events we remember easily are likely to have occurred more frequently in the past�and are more likely to occur in the future�than events that are harder to remember.
availability
confirmation
representative

availability

In _____ problems, the nature of the problem and the information needed to solve it are clear. In _____ problems, either or both the nature of the problem and the information required to solve it are unclear.
algorithmic; heuristic
arrangement; inducing s

well-defined; ill-defined

Thomas Edison invented the light-bulb only because he experimented with thousands of different kinds of materials for a filament before he found one that worked (carbon). This shows that at the most basic level, we can solve problems through _____.
means-

trial and error

_____ is defined as a sudden awareness of the relationship among problem elements; it is thought to lead rapidly to the problem's solution.
Divergent thinking
Convergent thinking
Creativity
Insight

Insight

_____ is the tendency to seek out and give greater weight to information that supports one's initial hypothesis and to ignore contradictory information that supports alternative hypotheses or solutions.
A mental set
Confirmation bias
Representative heuris

Confirmation bias

What did Professor Larry say about creativity?
It's strongest in right-brained people
Creativity is much akin to ESP, it's hooey
Creativity may be related to ADHD, and may stem from an inability to focus
It's strongest in left-brained people

Creativity may be related to ADHD, and may stem from an inability to focus

What percentage of people's IQ's fall between an 85-115?
50%
68%
33.333%
99%

68%

Which of the following language acquisition stages or phenomena is correctly matched with an illustrative example?
Babbling- "Goo goo, ga ga"
Overgeneralization- "Daddy has come home."
Telegraphic speech - "Iran from the library to the bus stop."
Overgene

Babbling- "Goo goo, ga ga

Tina is 6 months old, Vincenzo is 2 years and 7 months old, and Wayne is 3 years and 6 months old. Which alternative below correctly pairs each child with the appropriate language acquisition stage or phenomenon?
Tina�overgeneralization; Vincenzo�babbling

Tina�babbling; Vincenzo�telegraphic speech; Wayne�overgeneralization

_____ refers to the factors that direct and energize the behavior of humans and other organisms.
Motivation
Intelligence
Development
Cognition

Motivation

Inborn patterns of behavior that are biologically determined are called:
desires
notions
instincts
motives

instincts

Which of the following statements best expresses the fate of instinct approaches to motivation within mainstream psychology?
Instinct approaches have always been influential in the psychology of motivation.
Instinct approaches to motivation still play a r

Instinct approaches to motivation still play a role in certain theories, especially those based on evolutionary approaches that focus on our genetic inheritance.

Drive-reduction approaches to motivation are:
theories suggesting that we try to maintain certain levels of stimulation and activity.
theories suggesting that motivation is a product of people's thoughts, expectations, and goal.
theories suggesting that m

theories suggesting that a lack of some basic biological need produces a drive to push an organism to satisfy that need.

What is homeostasis?
The diffusion of fluids into a cell
The psychological representation of primary needs
A theory of need reduction
The body's tendency to maintain a steady internal state

The body's tendency to maintain a steady internal state

Incentive approaches to motivation are:
theories suggesting that a lack of some basic biological need produces a drive to push an organism to satisfy that need.
theories suggesting that we try to maintain certain levels of stimulation and activity.
theori

theories suggesting that motivation stems from the desire to attain external rewards.

Which of the following refers to the cause that pushes us to participate in an activity for our own enjoyment rather than for any actual or concrete reward that it will bring us?
Intrinsic motivation
Extrinsic motivation
External factors
Observable factor

Intrinsic motivation

Which of the following is an example of extrinsic motivation?
A social worker spends more time with the elderly because she likes to be with them.
A student reads many books on religion because she is very interested in religious studies.
An athlete pract

A doctor sees more patients to make more money.

Which of the following sequences best expresses the order in which the needs in Maslow's pyramid must be fulfilled from the first to the last?
Self-actualization, love and belongingness, esteem, and physiological and safety
Physiological and safety, estee

Physiological, safety, love and belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization

The physiological arousal sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system:
prepares the body for action.
aids digestion.
prepares the body for rest.
increases the count of Red Blood Cells (RBCs).

prepares the body for action.

According to the approach which organizes emotions using hierarchy, which of the following is derived from a negative emotion?
Infatuation
Pride
Guilt
Contentment

Guilt

According to Professor Larry, what is the purpose of adrenaline, in evolutionary terms?
I can't remember, I think I fell asleep when you were talking about that
It produces the fight or flight mechanism.
It allows a person to better understand the feeling

It produces the fight, flight, or freeze mechanism.