Com test #1

Major Media Professions

Public relations


Print to digital
Broadcast to cable

Public Relations

Influence opinion
Manage relationships with key publics
Create favorable publicity for clients and employers


Create messages that move people to action
Most creative of the media writing sectors
Create new messages with fresh approaches to sell

Copy Writers

Listen to needs of clients
Compose messages that sell
Work with production staff to shape those messages for media platforms
Slogans, web banner ads, radio/TV commercials, print ads, campaigns

Strategic Communication

The merger of the public relations, advertising, and marketing disciplines
AKA-integrated marketing communication
Takes a consumer-centered approach to present one brand voice

FAJA messages

Based on facts
Based on detailed analysis of facts
Use judgment
Encourage audience to take action

FAJA meaning

Four basic types of message structures.

Pro Strategy Connection

The job allows you to meet new people and have new experiences all the time.
Deadline pressure brings an adrenaline buzz.
There's no limit to what you can do.
Seeing your name in media is a thrill.

Active Thinking Process

Consider the situation and audience together
Creatively envision the final story
Actively learn
Refocus your thinking

Craft Essential

Create your own professional strategy triangle


After researching the situation and getting a rich understanding of the audience, create an effective message to meet these needs.


Be clear about who the people reading, hearing, or seeing your messages are.
Tailor your message to them.


Assess the situation for which you are writing

Professional Media Writing Strategy

Simple and direct strategies to begin and organize writing
Enable you to work more efficiently and effectively.

Tips for a Successful Journalism Career

Be ready to jump on a new story
Be flexible and wiling to work long hours
Be skeptical at all times
Learn how to write interesting story pitches
Pick up an outside area of expertise
Be hardworking and relentless
Be willing to present the truth´┐Żeven if you

Media Writing Style Conventions


Journalistic Objectivity

Lack of bias, judgment, or prejudice in reporting, interviewing, and writing
Stories based on facts and evidence, excluding personal opinion


Research all sides, don't take sides.

style guides

Rules for consistency, usage, and precision
Associated Press
The New York Times
Bloomberg News

Abbreviations and Acronyms

Use them sparingly

Accessible Language

Translate jargon and buzzwords into terms readers will understand
Writing should be understandable to average readers.

Write with Sensitivity

Disabilities and illnesses
Sexist versus neutral

Grammar, Spelling, and Punctuation

The flow of the reading experience
Avoiding misunderstandings

Types of Leads

Direct address lead
Reaches out to readers and speaks to them using a second person ( you) voice
Conversational and can grab attention
Quotation lead
Quickly introduce the reader to the main story character
Question lead
Can grab attention
Can be risky

Types of Feature Leads

Delayed lead
Postpones identifying the person, place or event addressed in the story
Descriptive lead
Describes a person, setting, or situation with verbs, adjectives, and adverbs to paint a picture.
Ironic lead
Builds on twists of fate

Inverted Pyramid Structure

Runs too long, easily trimmed from bottom without sacrificing main idea
Do not end with conclusion. Rather, trail off to less significant facts and details
The conclusion is in the lead

Lead Writing Guidelines

Use subject-verb-object sentence structure
Lead with the news
Use strong, active verbs
Remain objective

The News Lead

Most important part of the story´┐Żand the most difficult

Write for Converged Media

Forty-six percent journalists said ability to edit video important
Fifty-three percent said shooting/editing photos important
Thirty-eight said ability to record and edit audio important

Multiplatform story

Newspapers today >> online entities supplemented by print edition.
50% adults get news on social media.

Hard News Shift

Often written in feature story format
Making news writing more creative than a generation ago.


is when people are influenced by someone who is liked and respected, such as a famous celebrity.


is when people accept a belief or behavior and agree both publicly and privately.

Social influence

occurs when one's emotions, opinions, or behaviors are affected by others


is when people appear to agree with others, but actually keep their dissenting opinions private.

Purpose of Communication

Harold Lasswell (researcher), identified three functions of mass media:
1. surveillance of the environment
2.correlations of the parts of society in responding to that environment (explaining to various publics what the news and information being transmit

The Media Writer's Self-Perception (MWSP) Scale

involves Writing apprehension
Writing self-efficacy
Writing approaches


Makeup of potential audience for a given program or station

Controversial Material

Freedom of expression and democratic exchange of ideas in television and radio are endangered because many media executives fear controversy

The medium is the message

is a phrase coined by Marshall McLuhan meaning that the form of a medium embeds itself in the message, creating a symbiotic relationship by which the medium influences how the message is perceived.


the literal meaning or "dictionary definition" of a term, devoid of emotion, attitude, and color.


a commonly understood subjective cultural or emotional association that some word or phrase carries, in addition to the word's or phrase's explicit or literal meaning

Cognitive Dissonance

discomfort caused by holding conflicting cognitions (e.g., ideas, beliefs, values, emotional reactions) simultaneously.


is when people appear to agree with others, but actually keep their dissenting opinions private

Walter Lippmann (1921)

Whatever we believe to be a true picture, we treat as if it were the environment itself, for the real environment is altogether too big, too complex and to fleeting for direct acquaintance.

Opinion leadership

is a concept that arises out of the theory of two-step flow of communication propounded by Paul Lazarsfeld and Elihu Katz