Railroad subsidies

Government grants of land or money to railroad companies to build railroads in the West.

stock watering

Price manipulation by strategic stock brokers of the late 1800s. The term for selling more stock than they actually owned in order to lower prices, then buying it back.

granger laws

Grangers state legislatures in 1874 passed law fixing maximum rates for freight shipments. The railroads responded by appealing to the Supreme Court to declare these laws unconstitutional

Wabash v. Illinois

1886 - Stated that individual states could control trade in their states, but could not regulate railroads coming through them. Congress had exclusive jurisdiction over interstate commerce.


Interstate Commerce Commission, a federal regulatory agency that governed over the rules and regulations of the railroading industry.

McKinley Tariff

1890 tariff that raised protective tariff levels by nearly 50%, making them the highest tariffs on imports in the United States history

Gold Standard

A monetary system in which paper money and coins are equal to the value of a certain amount of gold

Sherman Antitrust Act

First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions

Pullman Strike

in Chicago, Pullman cut wages but refused to lower rents in the "company town", Eugene Debs had American Railway Union refuse to use Pullman cars, Debs thrown in jail after being sued, strike achieved nothing

Pullman Strike

in Chicago, Pullman cut wages but refused to lower rents in the "company town", Eugene Debs had American Railway Union refuse to use Pullman cars, Debs thrown in jail after being sued, strike achieved nothing

pork barrel

Federal projects, grants, and contracts available to state and local governments, businesses, colleges, and other institutions in a congressional district.

party machines

A type of political party organization that relies heavily on material inducements, such as patronage, to win votes and to govern.


A 19th century term for political corruption during the Gilded Age. Which included bribery scandals, abuses of the spoils system and political cronyism.

Indian Agent

a government appointed person who communicated and negotiated with the Indians

Customs House

taxes on imports collected, hayes created first one for merit rewards instead of spoils

Half-Breeds, Stalwarts, and Mugwumps

*Factions of the Republican Party in the 1880s
*Half-Breeds: supported civil service reform and merit appointments to government
*Stalwarts: Opposed civil service reform and supported the protective tariff
*Mugwumps: Group that left Republican Party to become Democrats; this group heavily favored civil service reform and mistrusted James Blaine as the presidential nominee because it suspected his involvement in past corruption
*The election of 1880 united Garfield, a Half-Breed, and Vice President Chester Arthur, a Stalwart

Garfield's Assassination

patronage and spoils system: government appointments were treated as rewards for those who served winning party--reform of this became urgent after Garfield shot and killed in 1881

Chester A. Arthur

Appointed customs collector for the port of New York - corrupt and implemented a heavy spoils system. He was chosen as Garfield's running mate. Garfield won but was shot, so Arthur became the 21st president.

Pendleton Civil Service Act

(1883): Did away with the "spoils system" and made the hiring of federal employees merit based.

Social Darwinism

The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.

gospel of wealth

This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.

Menlo Park

New Jersey village west of New York City where Thomas Edison established the world's first industrial research laboratory in 1876. He lived there until his wife's death in 1884.

Immigrant Ghettos

urban areas which was often the destination of foreigners that came to the USA; became prominent in the late 19th century; provided community yet faced challenges of poverty and crime; aided by settlement houses

Strikes in the Gilded Age

Most of all of them start with wage cuts and unfair work conditions. Labor strikes and the national guard is called in by the Robber Barrons. They had so much power that any strike was pointless.

Knights of Labor

1st effort to create National union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. Vague program, no clear goals, weak leadership and organization. Failed


A labor union formed in 1886 by Samuel Gompers in order to voice the working class (only highly skilled laborers). It fought against labor forces and debated work conditions for skilled workers. Utilized Strikes.

Haymarket Riot

100,000 workers rioted in Chicago. After the police fired into the crowd, the workers met and rallied in Haymarket Square to protest police brutality. A bomb exploded, killing or injuring many of the police. The Chicago workers and the man who set the bomb were immigrants, so the incident promoted anti-immigrant feelings.

Homestead Strike

1892 steelworker strike near Pittsburgh against the Carnegie Steel Company. Ten workers were killed in a riot when "scab" labor was brought in to force an end to the strike.

laissez-faire capitalism

an economic system in which the means of production and distribution are privately owned and operated for profit with minimal or no government interference


A cause of the stock market crash in 1929; buying stocks with borrowed money.

Ethnic Ghettos

An area where people from a specific racial or ethnic background live as a group in seclusion, voluntarily or involuntarily

Parochial Schools

a private school supported by a particular church or parish.

Gilded Age Immigration

began to see an influx of Eastern and Southern Europeans, such as Italians, Poles, and Jews, and less Northern and Western Europeans; approximately 10 million immigrants entered during this time; Ellis Island constructed; many worked in factories, mills, etc.

Chinese Exclusion Act

(1882) Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate.

Social Gospel

A movement in the late 1800s / early 1900s which emphasized charity and social responsibility as a means of salvation.

Vertical Integration

Practice where a single entity controls the entire process of a product, from the raw materials to distribution

Horizontal Integration

Type of monopoly where a company buys out all of its competition. Ex. Rockefeller

Robber Barons

Refers to the industrialists or big business owners who gained huge profits by paying their employees extremely low wages. They also drove their competitors out of business by selling their products cheaper than it cost to produce it. Then when they controlled the market, they hiked prices high above original price.

Carnegie Steel

Steel giant that dominated the industry. Run by rags to riches legend Andrew Carnegie who later teamed up with J.P. Morgan to form U.S. Steel, the first billion dollar corporation in 1900.

Gospel of Success

Justification for the growing gap between rich and poor during the Industrial Revolution. The "Gospel" centered on the claim that anyone could become wealthy with enough hard work and determination. Writers like Horatio Alger incorporated this ideology into their work.

patronage/kickback system

this system was central to the spoils system. political bosses would coerce the people to vote for a politician, who would award governmental contracts to certain companies (which would help out their businesses), who would pay political bosses back with kickbacks

Boss Tweed and Tammany Hall

an American politician most notable for being the "boss" of Tammany Hall, the Democratic Party political machine that played a major role in the politics of 19th century New York City and State.

Thomas Nast

A famous caricaturist and editorial cartoonist in the 19th century and is considered to be the father of American political cartooning. His artwork was primarily based on political corruption. He helped people realize the corruption of some politicians

Triangle Shirtwaist Fire

March 1911 fire in New York factory that trapped young women workers inside locked exit doors; nearly 50 ended up jumping to their death; while 100 died inside the factory; led to the establishment of many factory reforms, including increasing safety precautions for workers


1906 - Journalists who searched for corruption in politics and big business

Initiative, Referendum, Recall

Initiative: people have the right to propose a new law. Referendum: a law passed by the legislature can be reference to the people for approval/veto. Recall: the people can petition and vote to have an elected official removed from office. These all made elected officials more responsible and sensitive to the needs of the people, and part of the movement to make government more efficient and scientific.

secret ballot

Anonymous voting method that helps to make elections fair and honest


Name for Union paper money not backed by gold or silver. Value would fluctuate depending on status of the war (plural)

Specie Resumption Act

issued by Congress, limited reduction of greenbacks, full resumption of specie payment by Jan. 1879, causes deflation angering farmers and workers.resumed gold standard

Coinage Act

In 1873, Congress demonitized silver. This caused a drop in silver value and increased deflation.

panic of 1873

Four year economic depression caused by overspeculation on railroads and western lands, and worsened by Grant's poor fiscal response (refusing to coin silver

The "Crime of 1873" refers to

Coinage Act

Greenback Labor Party (1878)

Political party devoted to improving the lives of laborers and raising inflation, reaching its high point in 1878 when it polled over a million votes and elected fourteen members of Congress.

Bland-Allison Act

1878 - Authorized coinage of a limited number of silver dollars and "silver certificate" paper money. First of several government subsidies to silver producers in depression periods. Required government to buy between $2 and $4 million worth of silver. Created a partial dual coinage system referred to as "limping bimetallism." Repealed in 1900.

Sherman Silver Purchase Act

Required the government to purchase an additional 4.5 million ounces of silver bullion each month for use as currency.

Panic of 1893 Causes

Companies and individuals had borrowed too much, companies went bankrupt-many lost there jobs


Originally a social organization between farmers, it developed into a political movement for government ownership of railroads

Farmers' Alliance

A Farmers' organization founded in late 1870s; worked for lower railroad freight rates, lower interest rates, and a change in the governments tight money policy


A party made up of farmers and laborers that wanted direct election of senators and an 8hr working day

Free Silver

Political issue involving the unlimited coinage of silver, supported by farmers and William Jennings Bryan


supporting American currency with silver and gold, instead of just using gold; goal of Populism

Cross of Gold Speech

An impassioned address by William Jennings Bryan at the 1896 Deomcratic Convention, in which he attacked the "gold bugs" who insisted that U.S. currency be backed only with gold.

Election of 1896: candidates and issues

William McKinley-Republican, North, industry and high tariffs. Williams Bryan-Democrat, West and South, farmers and low tariffs. The main issues were the coinage of silver and protective tariffs.

war of 1812

A war (1812-1814) between the United States and England which was trying to interfere with American trade with France.

Nullification Crisis

A sectional crisis during the presidency of Andrew Jackson created by the Ordinance of Nullification, an attempt by the state of South Carolina to nullify a federal law - the tariff of 1828 - passed by the United States Congress.

Tariff of Abominations

Tariff passed by Congress in 1828 that favored manufacturing in the North and was hated by the South

clay compromise

He devised the Compromise Tariff which provided for a gradual lowering of duties between 1833-1842. The Force Bill authorized the president to use arms to collect customs duties in South Carolina. Without the compromise, he believed that the Force Bill would produce a civil war.

Morrill Tariff Act

Increased duties back up to 1846 levels to raise revenue for the Civil War.

Cleveland and taxes

proposed that congress set over tariff rates- since there was a growing surplus in the federal treasury and the government did not need the added tax revenue

Billion Dollar Congress

gave pensions to Civil War veterans, increased government silver purchases, and passed McKinley Tariff Act of 1890

Wilson-Gorman Tariff

Meant to be a reduction of the McKinley Tariff, it would have created a graduated income tax, which was ruled unconstitutional.

Payne-Aldrich Tariff

a set of tax regulations, enacted by Congress in 1909, that failed to significantly reduce tariffs on manufactured goods

Underwood-Simmons Tariff

1914, lowered tariff, substantially reduced import fees. Lost tax revenue would be replaced with an income tax that was implemented with the 16th amendment.

Indian Removal Act

Passed in 1830, authorized Andrew Jackson to negotiate land-exchange treaties with tribes living east of the Mississippi. The treaties enacted under this act's provisions paved the way for the reluctant´┐Żand often forcible´┐Żemigration of tens of thousands of American Indians to the West.

Oklahoma Land Rush

1889; former Indian lands;opened up for settlement, resulting in a race to lay claim for a homestead (Boomers and Sooners)

Desert Land Act

1906, Federal government sold arid land cheaply on the condition that the purchaser irrigate the thirsty soil within 3 years.

Bureau of Indian Affairs

to manage Indian removal to western lands, Congress approved the creation of a new government agency

Dawes Severalty Act

Bill that promised Indians tracts of land to farm in order to assimilate them into white culture. The bill was resisted, uneffective, and disastrous to Indian tribes

dime novels

sometimes identified as pulp fiction, these cheaply produced and low-priced novels were popular in the United States beginning in the 1860s


Author of "The Influence of Sea Power" in which he argued a strong navy was essential for the protection of American interests

New Manifest Destiny

In the 1890s, fears that natural resources would soon disappear and that alternative sources would have to be found abroad. Protests led to a push for a more aggressive foreign policy while others considered acquiring colonies that might expand our world market.

Yellow Press

newspapers that used sensational headlines and exaggerated stories in order to promote readership

Hawaiian Annexation (July 1898)

Hawaii was an import station for US ships in trading (Pearl Harbor). A number of Americans that lived there was growing and dominating econ and political life there. Americans took away land from ancient civilization Debate over annexation went on until 1898 when republicans took office& approved it.

Spanish-American War

In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans' fight for independence

Cuban Revolution

the revolution led by Fidel Castro and a small band of guerrilla fighters against a corrupt dictatorship in Cuba

USS Maine

Ship that explodes off the coast of Cuba in Havana harbor and helps contribute to the start of the Spanish-American War

Teller and Platt Amendments

Legislation that promised the US would not annex Cuba after winning the Spanish-American war/ a treaty between the U.S. and Cuba that attempted to protect Cuba's independence from foreign intervention. It permitted extensive U.S. involvement in Cuban international and domestic affairs for the enforcement of Cuban independence.

Open Door Notes

message send by secretary of state John Hay in 1899 to Germany, Russia, Great Britain, France, Italy & Japan asking the countries not to interfere with US trading rights in China.

Boxer Rebellion

A 1900 Uprising in China aimed at ending foreign influence in the country.

Monroe Doctrine

an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers

Roosevelt Corollary

Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force

Gun Boat Diplomacy

use of military force to achieve diplomatic objectives

Big Stick Diplomacy

Diplomatic policy developed by T.R where the "big stick" symbolizes his power and readiness to use military force if necessary. It is a way of intimidating countries without actually harming them and was the basis of U.S. imperialistic foreign policy.

Panama Revolution

The Isthmus of Panama had been part of Columbia. U.S. tried to negotiate with Columbia to build the Panama Canal. Columbia refused, so U.S. encouraged Panama to revolt. Example of Big Stick diplomacy.

Jane Addams

1860-1935. Founder of Settlement House Movement. First American Woman to earn Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 as president of Women's Intenational League for Peace and Freedom.

Temperance and Prohibition

champions of reform were divided over this issue, urban Progressives recognized saloons were headquarters of political machines, little sympathy to movement, rural reformers believed they could clean up morals by eliminating it


People who campaigned for women's right to vote in the late 1800's and early 1900's.


journalist who wrote :The Shame of the Cities", took an extreme view of urban politics

florence kelley

reformer who worked to prohibit child labor and to improve conditions for female workers

Muller v. Oregon

1908 - Supreme Court upheld Oregon state restrictions on the working hours of women as justified by the special state interest in protecting women's health

Lochner v. New York

overturns new york law setting 8 hr maximum working hours for bakery workers- 1905


The governor of Wisconsin and leader of the progressive movement, he championed control of big business, better working conditions for workers, and treating business the same as people are treated.

Square Deal

Economic policy by Roosevelt that favored fair relationships between companies and workers

Bully Pulpit

the president's use of his prestige and visibility to guide or enthuse the American public

Anthracite Coal Strike

1902 United Mine Workers of America strike in eastern Pennsylvania which threatened to cause an energy crisis requiring the federal government to intervene on the side of labor (first time)

Hepburn and Elkins Act

Regulated railroads in order to discourage their abuse of the farmers etc; worked to support the Interstate Commerce Act (ICC)

Newlands Reclamation Act

1902 act authorizing federal funds from public land sales to pay for irrigation and land development projects, mainly in the dry Western states

The Jungle

This 1906 work by Upton Sinclair pointed out the abuses of the meat packing industry. The book led to the passage of the 1906 Meat Inspection Act.

Pure Food and Drug Act

1906 - Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.

Russo-Japanese War

A 1904-1905 conflict between Russia and Japan, sparked by the two countries' efforts to dominate Manchuria and Korea

Gentlemen's Agreement

Agreement when Japan agreed to curb the number of workers coming to the US and in exchange Roosevelt agreed to allow the wives of the Japenese men already living in the US to join them

Roosevelt Panic of 1907

short economic downturn; blamed on roosevelt for changing economy by unsettling the industries with his anti-trust tactics. (blamed for his square deal progressive reform)

New Nationalism

Roosevelt's progressive political policy that favored heavy government intervention in order to assure social justice

Bull Moose Party

nickname for the new Progressive Party, which was formed to support Roosevelt in the election of 1912

The real 'trustbuster'?

William howard taft broke up 90 trusts

Rule of Reason

before ruling on the legality of certain business practices, a court examines why they were undertaken and what effect they have on market competition

Pinchot-Ballinger Affair

Taft appointed Ballinger as secretary of interior. Ballinger removed nearly one million acres from government protection
Evidence of corruption was given to Pinchot

1910 Congressional Elections

The old-school Republicans and new/Progressive Republicans split the vote, thus the Democrats won heavily in the House of Rep's 228 seats - 161 seats

Split in Republican Party

Theodore Roosevelt warned William Howard Taft to stay away from tariff reform because it would

Triple Wall of Privilege

President Wilson called for an all-out war on the tariff, the banks, and the trusts.

Federal Reserve Act

law that created the modern banking system

Brandies Brief

during the case muller v orgeon where he spoke about inherent differences between men and women in the workplace.

John J. Pershing

US general who chased Villa over 300 miles into Mexico but didn't capture him

Sussex Pledge

Germans would not sink merchant & passenger (non-military) vessels. Wilson - "any little . . . [U-boat] commander can put is into war at any time by some calculated outrage". Violated later with the later resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare

Zimmerman Note

Written by Arthur Zimmerman, a german foreign secretary. In this note he had secretly proposed a German- Mexican alliance. He tempted Mexico with the ideas of recovering Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico. The note was intercepted on March 1, 1917 by the U.S. government. This was a major factor that led us into WWI.

American Expeditionary Force

the U.S. forces, led by Gen. John Pershing, who fought with the allies in Europe during WWI

War Industries Board

Agency established during WWI to increase efficiency & discourage waste in war-related industries.

Causes of WWI

1)Assassination of Franz Ferdinand, 2)imperialism, 3)nationalism, 4)Alliance System, 5)militarism

Selective Service Act

Law passed by Congress in 1917 that required all men from ages 21 to 30 to register for the military draft

Sedition Act of 1918

made it illegal for americans to speak disloyaly about the US government, constitution, or flag

Schneck v. US

Free speech limited in clear and present danger

Treaty of Versailles

Treaty that ended WW I. It blamed Germany for WW I and handed down harsh punishment.

14 points

(1918) President Woodrow Wilson's plan for organizing post World War I Europe and for avoiding future wars.

Convoy System

the protection of merchant ships from U-boat-German submarine-attacks by having the ships travel in large groups escorted by warships

Trenches, poison gas, tanks

Three new weapons that were used in World War I

Meuse-Argonne Offensive

in World War I, the final Allied offensive that brought about the end of the war

Big Four

The Big Four were the four most important leaders, and the most important ones at the Paris Peace Conference. They were Woodrow Wilson- USA, David Lloyd George- UK, George Clemenceau- France, and Vittorio Orlando- Italy.

League of Nations

an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations

Black Codes

Laws denying most legal rights to newly freed slaves; passed by southern states following the Civil War

Plessy v. Ferguson

a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal

W.E.B. DuBois

Co-founded the NAACP to help secure legal equality for minority citizens.

Negro Baseball League

This was a baseball league that was just for African-Americans, this league wanted to be separated from all whites. Andrew Foster created it. Jackie Robinson integrated baseball in 1947 when he joined the Brooklyn Dodgers.

Back to Africa Movement

Encouraged those of African decent to return to Africa to their ancestors so that they could have their own empire because they were treated poorly in America.

Harding and Coolidge

favored policies that aided the growth of business

Return to Normalcy

a return to the way of life before World War I, was United States presidential candidate Warren G. Harding's campaign promise in the election of 1920.

Immigration Quota Act 1924

cut quota for foreigners to 2% instead of 3%, marked end of unrestricted immigration in US

Tea Pot Dome

biggest scandal of Harding's administration; Secretary of Interior Albert Fall illegally leased government oil fields in the West to private oil companies; Fall was later convicted of bribery and became the first Cabinet official to serve prison time (1931-1932).

Dawes Plan

A plan to revive the German economy, the United States loans Germany money which then can pay reparations to England and France, who can then pay back their loans from the U.S. This circular flow of money was a success.

Scopes Trial

1925 court case in which Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan debated the issue of teaching evolution in public schools


Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion (or a religious branch, denomination, or sect).

Harlem Renaissance

A literary and artistic movement celebrating African-American culture.

Lost Generation

Americans who became disillusioned with society after World War I

Volstead Act

Bill passed by Congress to enforce the language of the 18th Amendment. This bill made the manufacture and distribution of alcohol illegal within the borders of the United States.


Young women in the 1920s who challenged social traditions with their dress and behavior


prohibition spawned these crimes; organized crime of bootlegging alcohol and bribing public officials to keep quiet; also got involved in prostitution and gambling


United States aviator who in 1927 made the first solo nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean (1902-1974)

Causes of the Great Depression

stock markets crashed, unemployment rising, the dustbowl, overproduction of everything, layoffs,buying on credit

black friday

When Fisk and Gould bought a large amount of gold, planning to sell it for a profit. In order to lower the high price of gold, the Treasury was forced to sell $4 million in gold from its reserves.


Depression shantytowns, named after the president whom many blamed for their financial distress

Smoot-Hawley Tariff

One of Herbert Hoover's earliest efforts to protect the nation's farmers following the onset of the Great Depression. Tariff raised rates to an all-time high.

Dust Bowl

Region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930 lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages.

Election of 1932: candidates, issues

Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt, beat the Republican, Herbert Hoover, who was running for reelection. FDR promised relief for the unemployed, help for farmers, and a balanced budget.

Bank Holiday 1933

Franklin Delano Roosevelt declared that all banks were to be closed on March 6, 1933. A few days later he allowed the reopening of economically sound banks.

Alphabet Soup

Term used to refer to the group of New Deal programs created to provide "Relief, Reform, and Recovery" for American citizens, banks, and businesses during the Great Depression.

21st Amendment

Amendment which ended the Prohibition of alcohol in the US, repealing the 18th amendment

Stock Market Crash (Black Tuesday)

Speculation and Buying on Margin caused this to crash on Black Tuesday in 1929 causing a chain reaction in the economy.
Black Tuesday--October 29th when stock market prices took the steepest dive-stocks lost $10-$15 billion in value.

Farming Crisis

during WWI farmers made huge profits and over extended themselves, when the market fell off, they couldn't afford their mortgages, and the banks took their farms, houses, and lands (RC)

Rugged Individualism

Herbert Hoover's belief that people must be self-reliant and not depend upon the federal government for assistance.

soup kitchens and bread lines

places that provided free food during the great depression

Bonus Marchers

veterans who went to Washington demanding promised payment 2) moved into a Hooverville in Washington 3) Hoover cleared them out => two veterans were shot => diminished view of Hoover

First Hundred Days

This term refers to March 4 to June 16, 1933. During this period of dramatic legislative productivity, FDR laid out the programs that constituted the New Deal. Today, presidents are often measured by their actions in the same period of time

Fireside Chats

informal talks given by FDR over the radio; sat by White House fireplace; gained the confidence of the people

Glass-Steagall Act

(Banking Act of 1933) - Established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and included banking reforms, some designed to control speculation. Repealed in 1999, opening the door to scandals involving banks and stock investment companies.

Tennessee Valley Authority

A relief, recovery, and reform effort that gave 2.5 million poor citizens jobs and land. It brought cheap electric power, low-cost housing, cheap nitrates, and the restoration of eroded soil.

Schechter v. US

In 1935, the Supreme Court declared the National Recovery Administration (NRA) unconstitutional. (p. 505)

Indian Reorganization Act

1934 - Restored tribal ownership of lands, recognized tribal constitutions and government, and provided loans for economic development.

Social Security Act

(FDR) 1935, guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health

Fair Labor Standards Act

1938 act which provided for a minimum wage and restricted shipments of goods produced with child labor

Cash and Carry

Britain and France could buy goods from the United States if they paid in full and transported them.

Lend-Lease Act

allowed sales or loans of war materials to any country whose defense the president deems vital to the defense of the U.S

Axis Powers

Germany, Italy, Japan

Good Neighbor Policy

President Franklin Roosevelt's policy intended to strengthen friendly relations with Latin America

Attack on Pearl Harbor

Bombing of Pearl Harbor in Hawaii by Japan on December 7, 1941. The Japanese were hoping to cripple the American fleet, which had been enforcing Embargo, which denied Japan the raw materials it needed to increase their power and this attack failed leading to Japan's defeat.

causes of wwii

Aggression by Germany, Italy, Japan, Nationalism, Failed Treaty of Versailles, Appeasment


Accepting demands in order to avoid conflict

germany first

despite attack on Pearl Harbor, Allies strategy was to defeat Nazi Germany first

operation torch

Codename for allied invasion of North Africa from Novermber 1942 to September 1943

Second Front

The Russians were suffering heavy casualties fighting the German invasion of Russia. Stalin urged the Allies to open a "second front" in the west to relieve the pressure on the Russians. The Allies did so, but only after a long delay.

Operation Overlord

the code name for the Allied invasion of Europe at Normandy on June 6, 1944; also known as D-Day

Big Three

allies during WWII; Soviet Union - Stalin, United Kingdom - Churchill, United States - Roosevelt

Nye Commission

1936, led by Senator Gerald Nye, revealed corruption of American arms manufacturers, some of whom had been supplying Fascist governments with weapons, others calling for entry to WWI

Spanish Civil War

In 1936 a rebellion erupted in Spain after a coalition of Republicans, Socialists, and Communists was elected. General Francisco Franco led the rebellion. The revolt quickly became a civil war. The Soviet Union provided arms and advisers to the government forces while Germany and Italy sent tanks, airplanes, and soldiers to help Franco.

fall of france

June 1940 France and most of Europe was conquered by Germany. Left Britain alone against Hitler

Battle of Britain

An aerial battle fought in World War II in 1940 between the German Luftwaffe (air force), which carried out extensive bombing in Britain, and the British Royal Air Force, which offered successful resistance.

Casablanca Conference

A wartime conference held at Casablanca, Morocco that was attended by de Gaulle, Churchill, and FDR. The Allies demanded the unconditional surrender of the axis, agreed to aid the Soviets, agreed on the invasion Italy, and the joint leadership of the Free French by De Gaulle and Giraud.

island hopping

A military strategy used during World War II that involved selectively attacking specific enemy-held islands and bypassing others

VE Day

May 8, 1945; victory in Europe Day when the Germans surrendered

Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Two Japanese cities on which the U.S. dropped the atomic bombs to end World War II.

Internment Camps

Detention centers where more than 100,000 Japanese Americans were relocated during World War II by order of the President.

Korematsu v. US

1944 Supreme Court case where the Supreme Court upheld the order providing for the relocation of Japanese Americans. It was not until 1988 that Congress formally apologized and agreed to pay $20,000 2 each survivor

War Production Board

During WWII, FDR established it to allocated scarce materials, limited or stopped the production of civilian goods, and distributed contracts among competing manufacturers

Rosie the Riveter

A propaganda character designed to increase production of female workers in the factories. It became a rallying symbol for women to do their part.


Mexican workers hired to perform farm labor during World War II

Zoot Suit Riots

A series of riots in L.A. California during WW2, soldiers stationed in the city and Mexican youths because of the zoot suits they wore.

Yalta and Potsdam

conferences held to discuss the end of WWII and the future of Germany

Berlin Airlift

airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin

Warsaw Pact

Alliance against democracy, supporting communism

Truman Doctrine

1947, President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology, mainly helped Greece and Turkey

red china

Communist China beginning in 1949.

Atomic Energy Commission

Created in 1946 to oversee the research and production of atomic power.

john foster dulles

Eisenhower's tough-talking secretary of state who wanted to "roll back" communism

Massive Retaliation

The "new look" defense policy of the Eisenhower administration of the 1950's was to threaten "massive retaliation" with nuclear weapons in response to any act of aggression by a potential enemy.


unscrupulously accusing people of disloyalty (as by saying they were Communists)

domino theory

A theory that if one nation comes under Communist control, then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control.

Eisenhower Doctrine

Policy of the US that it would defend the Middle East against attack by any Communist country

Suez Crisis

crisis in which Britain and France attempted to seize control of the Suez canal from Egypt

U2 Incident

The incident when an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. The U.S. denied the true purpose of the plane at first, but was forced to when the U.S.S.R. produced the living pilot and the largely intact plane to validate their claim of being spied on aerially. The incident worsened East-West relations during the Cold War and was a great embarrassment for the United States.

Cold War Causes

USSR and USA emerge as the worlds two main superpowers with different political views, democracy vs. Communism, US, France, Great Britain wanted democracy, Soviets were Communist and wanted a buffer of countries in Eastern Europe, West trying to contain Communism, fear of capitalism, democracy, negotiate instead of fight

bay of pigs

An unsuccessful invasion of Cuba in 1961, which was sponsored by the United States. Its purpose was to overthrow Cuban dictator Fidel Castro.


A policy of threatening to go to war in response to any enemy aggression.

Flexible Response

the buildup of conventional troops and weapons to allow a nation to fight a limited war without using nuclear weapons

Test Ban Treaty