communication based on a person's use of voice and body, rather than on the use of words
reading from a manuscript, reciting from memory, speaking impromptu, and speaking extemporaneously
What are the 4 basic methods of delivering a speech?
a speech that is written out word for word and read to the audience
a speech delivered with little or no immediate preparation
a carefully prepared and rehearsed speech that is presented from a brief set of notes
presenting a speech so it sounds spontaneous no matter how many times it has been rehearsed
the loudness or softness of the speaker's voice
the highness or lowness of the speaker's voice
changes in the pitch or tone of a speaker's voice
a constant pitch or tone of voice
the speed at which a person speaks
a momentary break in the vocal delivery of a speech
a pause that occurs when a speaker fills the silence between words with vocalizations such as "uh" and "um
changes in a speaker's rate, pitch, and volume that give the voice variety and expressiveness
the accepted standard of sound and rhythm for words in a given language
the physical production of particular speech sounds
a variety of a language distinguished by variations of accent, grammar, or vocabulary
the study of body motions as a systematic mode of communication
personal appearance, movement, gestures, and eye contact
What are some physical things that affect the way listeners respond to a speaker?
motions of a speaker's hands or arms during a speech
direct visual contact with the eyes of another person
formulate answers to possible questions and practice the delivery of your answers
how does a speaker prepare for the question-and-answer session?
approach questions with a positive attitude, listen carefully, direct answers to the entire audience, be honest and straightforward, and stay on track
how does a speaker manage the question-and-answer session?
a speech that has been created specifically for an audience that will view it online and in real time
understand the special nature of the online environment, know your technology, control the visual environment, adapt your nonverbal communication, adjust your pacing for the online environment, manage q&a for the online environment, rehearse for the onlin
what are some things a speaker should do when presenting a speech online?
the process of creating, reinforcing, or changing people's beliefs or actions
mental dialogue with the audience
the mental give-and-take between speaker and listener during a persuasive speech
the portion fo the whole audience that the speaker most wants to persuade
question of fact
a question about the truth or falsify of an assertion
question of value
a question about the worth, rightness, morality, and so forth of an idea or action
question of policy
a question about whether a specific course of action should or should not be taken
speech to gain passive agreement
a persuasive speech in which the speaker's goal is to convince the audience that a given policy is desirable without encouraging the audience to take action in support of the policy
speech to gain immediate action
a persuasive speech in which the speaker's goal is to convince the audience to take action in support of a given policy
the first basic issue in analyzing a question of policy: is there a serious problem or need that requires a change from current policy?
burden of proof
the obligation facing a persuasive speaker to prove that a change from current policy is necessary
the second basic issue in analyzing a question of policy: if there is a problem with current policy, does the speaker have a plan to solve the problem?
the third basic issue in analyzing a question of policy: will the speaker's plan solve the problem? will it create new and more serious problems
a method of organizing persuasive speeches in which the first main point deals with the existence of a problem and the second main point presents a solution to the problem
a method of organizing persuasive speeches in which the first main point identifies a problem, the second main point analyzes the causes of the problem, and the third main point presents a solution to the problem
comparative advantages order
a method of organizing persuasive speeches in which each main point explains why a speaker's solution to a problem is preferable to other proposed solutions
Monroe's motivated sequence
a method of organizing persuasive speeches that seek immediate action. the five steps of the motivated sequence are attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, and action
speeches to gain passive agreement and speeches to gain immediate action
what are types of speeches on questions of policy?
the name used by Aristotle for what modern students of communication refer to as credibility
the audience's perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic. the two major factors influencing a speaker's credibility are competence and character
the credibility of a speaker before she or he starts to speak
the credibility of a speaker produced by everything she or he says and does during the speech
the credibility of a speaker at the end of the speech
competence and character
what are the two factors of credibility?
explain your competence, establish common ground with your audience, and deliver your speeches fluently, expressively, and with conviction
how do you enhance your credibility?
supporting materials used to prove or disprove something
use specific evidence, use novel evidence, use evidence from credible sources, and make clear the point of your evidence
what are tips for using evidence?
the name used by Aristotle for the logical appeal of a speaker. the two major elements of logos are evidence and reasoning
the process of drawing a conclusion on the basis of evidence
reasoning from specific instances
reasoning that moves from particular facts to a general conclusion
reasoning from principle
reasoning that moves from a general principle to a specific conclusion
reasoning that seeks to establish the relationship between causes and effects
reasoning in which a speaker compares two similar cases and infers that what is true for the first case is also true for the second
an error in reasoning
a fallacy in which a speaker jumps to a general conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence
a fallacy in which a speaker mistakenly assumes that because one event follows another, the first even is the cause of the second
an analogy in which two cases being compared are not essentially alike
a fallacy which assumes that because something is popular, it is therefore good, correct, or desirable
a fallacy that introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion
a fallacy that attacks the person rather than dealing with the real issue in dispute
a fallacy that forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than two alternatives exist
a fallacy which assumes that taking a first step will lead to subsequent steps that cannot be prevented
appeal to tradition
a fallacy which assumes that something old is automatically better than something new
appeal to novelty
a fallacy which assumes that something new is automatically better than something old
the name used by Aristotle for what modern students of communication refer to as emotional appeal
use emotional language, develop vivid examples, speak with sincerity and conviction
how does a speaker generate emotional appeal?
speech of introduction
a speech that introduces the main speaker to the audience
be brief, make sure your remarks are completely accurate, adapt your remarks to the occasion and main speaker and audience, and try to create a sense of anticipation and drama
what are the guidelines for speeches of introduction?
speech of presentation
a speech that present someone a gift, an award, or some other form of public recognition
a speech that gives thanks for a gift, an award, or some other form of public recognition
a speech that pays tribute to a person, a group of people, an institution, or an idea
is a persuasive speech in which the speaker's goal is to convince the audience to take action in support of a given policy considered immediate action or passive agreement?
speeches that give praise or blame
what are epideictic speeches?
keep it lighthearted and funny
what is key when giving a roast?
which speech gives an award and public recognition?
which speech pays tribute to a person, group, organization, or idea?
because everyone is on the internet
why is communication in digital forms so important right now?
yes, because whatever you put or is put of you is portraying your identity
is digital communication a part of your identity?