AP European History Unit 1: The Rise of Europe (deetz edit)

Arable Land

Land capable of growing crops

The Two Important People Groups in the Ancient Near East

Jews, Phoenicians

List two contributions each made by the Hebrews (Jew)

Created the first Monotheistic religion and the first moral code.

What are the Phoenicians known for?

Inventing the alphabet, naval stores, and influencing the Greeks and Romans

Power to Govern

Power to make, enforce, and interpret law

Authoritarian

One person who holds all power

Civil Power/Rights

The rights that the collective people hold

Totalitarian

An authoritarian who wants to take away civil rights

Primogeniture

Practice of passing power, title, money, and property from oldest son to oldest son

Dynasty

A ruling family coming form primogeniture

Aristocracy

Upper social class based on birth that results from a dynasty

Regent

A person who rules in the name of a ruler who is too young

Monarchy

Form of government headed by a King or Queen who inherits power

Democracy

Form of government where all citizens have a say in the power to govern

Republic

Form of government where leaders are elected

Classical Period of Greece/Rome

500 BCE to 500 CE

When was the Battle of Marathon?

490 BCE

What happened at the Battle of Marathon?

The Athenians defeated the Persians, defending Greece.

Why is the Battle of Marathon significant?

It saved the rest of Greece, and allowed Greek culture to survive for years to come

When was the Golden Age of Greece/Age of Pericles?

479 - 429 BCE

What was the Peloponnesian War?

A war between Athens and Sparta, Athens lost, never to recover again

What did the Macedonians do after the Peloponnesian War?

King Philip II conquers Greece after the Battle of Chaeronea

Who is Alexander the Great?

Son of Philip II, conquered all of the Persian Empire, spreading Greek culture across Persia

Who were the Punic Wars fought against?

The Phoenician colony Carthage

What was the result of the First Punic War?

Rome conquered Sicily, Carthage signed a very harsh negotiated treaty, led to the rise of Hannibal

What happened at the Battle of Cannae?

Hannibal knew the Roman strategy, and completely destroyed the entire Roman army

When did the Battle of Cannae occur?

216 BCE

Why is the Battle of Cannae significant?

Greatest one day military disaster in the Modern Era, all advances from 216 BCE would be different if Hannibal had taken Rome

Attrition

No long battles, focused on wearing the enemy down

What was the result of the Third Punic War?

Rome destroyed the city of Carthage, systematically destroyed the city with salt

What was the Battle of Zama?

Hannibal was forced back to Carthage, was defeated by his own strategies

What happened after the Punic Wars?

Without Carthage, Rome expanded into the Mediterranean, caused many political and economic problems, Caesar grew up

Who was Julius Caesar?

First person to realize that the common people possess a lot of power, conquered Gaul, and eventually became the Roman dictator

Why and when was Julius Caesar assassinated?

People believe Caesar would gain too much power, and assassinated him in the name of saving the Roman Republic in 44 BCE

Why is Julius Caesar's assassination significant?

Marks the end of the Roman Republic (never recovered), led many Caesar wannabees to join the party, leads to Civil Wars that destroy Rome

Who was Octavian (Augustus)?

Rebuilds Rome and reestablishes the Roman Empire, created more peace and security in Rome (Pax Romana)

What was the Pax Romana

Roman Peace, a period where many great things were achieved

Who is Jesus of Nazareth?

Founder of the Christian religion, claimed to be both human and God (the Messiah)

What were the 3 reasons why Jesus was the Messiah?

His birth would be miraculous, he would work miracles, he would die and come back to life

Why was Jesus crucified?

Jesus was arrested, tried, and killed as the Romans saw him as a threat to public stability

What were the major causes of the decline of Rome?

Economic Collapse, Debasing Coinage, Inflation, Social Decay, Military Breakdown, and Barbarian Invasions

Who was Diocletian?

Decided that Roman Empire was too big to be governed by one person, split the empire permanently into two

Who was Constantine?

First Christian Roman Emperor, saw a vision of the Christian Cross during the Battle of Milvian Bridge, converted to and legalized Christianity (Edict of Milano), created Constantinople

Who was Theodosius?

Made Christianity the state/official religion of Rome, outlawed all other Pagan religions

What was the Doctrine of Petrine Supremacy?

Jesus gives power to Peter, who dies in Rome, power transferred to the Pope

What was the Donation of Constantine?

Constantine donated Rome to the church, later disputed

What did the Doctrine of Petrine Supremacy and the Donation of Constantine lead to?

The creation of the Roman Catholic Church headed by the pope

When was the Fall of Rome in the West?

476 CE

Christendom

Area that is Christian