DSC4013 Final Exam Study Guide Chapters 7-14

What is Transnational Organized Crime (TOC)?

organized criminal groups that operate multinationally and it is examined in terms of:
- criminal activities, focusing on key players or TOC groups, extent of the problem, structure, and operational activities

What is terrorism?

the use of violence and intimidation in the pursuit of political aims; generally the commission of a crime by a group of organized individuals
- violence or criminal acts; crimes that are instrumental to their terrorist objectives; form of TOC

Why is Transnational Organized Crime difficult to define?

because there are many TOC groups/organizations, spread across the glove in a variety of criminal or noncriminal activities; a description of OC likely serves to provide a better understanding of the phenomenon than a definition

What are characteristics of TOC groups?

- nonideological, organizational hierarchy, perpetual over time, use force or the threat of the force, restrict membership, obtain profits through illegal enterprises and means, provide illegal goods/services that are desired by the public, use corruption

What is supply-side economics?

macroeconomic theory arguing that economic growth can be most effectively created by lowering taxes and decreasing regulation; provides illegal goods and services that are desired by the public

What is an example of monopoly?

Mexico; where many police, justice, and other government officials have been co-opted/corrupted by the drug cartels which results in larger profit margins for the organized crime groups
- Drugs, Gambling, Prostitution, etc.

What is the UN's definition of Transnational Organized Crime?

offenses whose inception, prevention, and/or direct or indirect effects involved more than one country

What are the two perspectives associated with TOC?

1. TOC can be a set of activities that supply illegal goods and services to meet a demand; as TOC orgs increase, they tend to become more complex organizationally and involve in more activities to further their illicit economic agenda
2. TOCs consist of h

What areas identified by the FBI are problem areas with the largest number of TOC groups?

Africa, the Balkans, Asia, Eurasia, Middle East, and anywhere with a weak government

What is street crime?

crime committed in public and often associated with violence, gangs, and poverty; more problematic/intrusive on people's lives and results in visible deaths, injuries, and economic issues that are vividly portrayed in the news and popular media = observab

What is Organized Crime?

a business supplying illegal goods or services; involved primarily in victimless crimes like gambling, loan sharking, narcotics trafficking, prostitution, provision of desired illegal goods/services to the general public

What is white-collar crime?

crime committed by people of high social position in the course of their occupations; includes numerous forms of fraud, for the most part, has been invisible to the public unless the government has made a case against some corporate entity
- can be incorp

What is the difference between street crime, organized crime, and white-collar crime?

differences are a matter of degree because there is substantial overlap between these three forms of crime

What is the difference between crime and terrorism?

motivations for crime/terrorism are different; Crime is committed for self-gratification and Terrorism is committed for a higher cause
- Terrorists are much more determined than criminals, requires more planning and must less opportunities than most crime

What is the impact of Transnational Organized Crime?

can have an impact on nation-states and large numbers of citizens, especially when criminal activities dominate an area
- can result in several critical problems for countries that are underdeveloped or have weak governments; attempt to corrupt government

What are two examples of TOC intrusions and violence in other countries?

- 2007 Guatemala Elections: TOC members murdered 50 political candidates and supporters; wanted to control their political institutions
- 2008 Mexico: TOCs penetrated governments with the intention of controlling certain governmental activities to promote

What are three factors that have contributed to the growth of TOCs?

1. Globalization
2. increased numbers and heterogeneity of immigrants
3. improved communications technology: communicate more easily, facilitating the development of operations and crime conspiracies and enhancing command/control across borders

What is globalization of the economy?

A process that involves the entire world and results in making something worldwide in scope, provided TOCs new avenues by which to commit its crime conspiracies

What is the proliferation of transportation technology?

significantly contributed to TOCs; highways, airline travel, and container shipping have made it much easier for TOC groups to move illegal goods anywhere in the world

What are the three models used to explain the etiology of TOC groups?

1, Political Model: refer to TOC groups forming as a result of weak nation-states, which are characterized by ethnic conflict/terrorist activity; conflict due to different groups vying for power/control over the government and criminal/legit enterprises

What are the two economic models that help explain the emergence of TOC groups?

1. Market Model: TOC group focus on criminal/illegal markets
2. Sufficient demand; illicit enterprises will evolve to fulfill the demand, dependent upon the capacity of the nation-state to control activities

What are the three social models that help explain the emergence of TOC groups?

1. Cultural Model: culturally-based TOC groups; some cultures have little regard for government, some have strong communal, religious, and family ties, and generally are suspicious of outsiders, choosing to have little contact with them like the Sicilian

How is traditional organized crime different from TOC?

Traditional OC is hierarchical, used a family structure, and operated for an extended period of time, whereas newer orgs. are more decentralized, often using a cell structure

What are the five unique organizational structures used by TOC groups?

1. Standard Hierarchy: mirror those found in many legit orgs. and generally found in the more sophisticated/developed TOC orgs.; single leader with subordinates, 10-hundreds of members
2. Regional Hierarchy: have similar features to standard except they h

What are the levels of drug trafficking?

production, smuggling and transportation, and wholesale and retail operations

Who is the largest supplier of opium with a large portion of production being carried out and supervised by the Taliban and Al Qaeda?

Afghanistan; $833 million produced estimated 6,400 tons of opium

What is human trafficking and its two forms?

the forced movement of people who do not possess the proper documents across international borders
1. large number of people who essentially decide to move from country to another one w/o docs (migrate)
2. Human Smuggling: hiring someone to take th

What are the seven purposes of human trafficking?

sex trafficking, child sex trafficking, forced labor, bonded labor/debt bondage, domestic servitude, forced child labor, and unlawful recruitment and use of child soldiers

What is the Smuggling of Technology and WMD materials?

illegally transferring weapons technology from one country to another; appear to be increasing like in Pakistan

What is arms trafficking?

the illegal selling of weapons to prohibited groups/countries usually those in which conflicts are occurring

What is the gray market?

the selling and handling of goods through unofficial distributors; a substantial portion of illegal arms are here here and consists of individual arms dealers who subvert the legit. arms licensing processes/requirements; disguise shipments as something ot

Why hasn't the illegal arms trade been controlled?

- there is a strong demand for arms in countries that are rife with political and religious conflicts
- arms embargo are ineffective in that they don't apply to states that are involved in the weapons trade
- inadequate controls with record-keepi

What terrorist group uses diamonds?


What does the sale of diamonds by insurgent groups result in?

-availability of funds to fuel wars/conflicts
-substantial revenue losses for these governments, generally weak nation-states, which makes it more difficult for them to respond to insurgencies and economic problems in the country

What are other names for diamonds?

blood diamonds" or "conflict diamonds

What is piracy?

an attack on ships by intruders who intend to steal cargo/ransack the ship, its contents, or crew and passengers; represent multiple targets for pirates
- remains a problem off the coasts of Africa/Asia and in some cases, South America and the Caribbean

What is the Journey of Commerce?

bulk carriers/container ships are the most frequently attacked; also Chemical tankers, product tankers, and general cargo ships

What is Non-Drug Contraband Smuggling?

smuggling legitimate goods like alcohol, cigarettes, textiles, and various luxury goods to evade tariffs and taxes; safer compared to drug smuggling

What is counterfeiting?

illegal printing of money; U.S. currency is the most commonly counterfeited currency because it is accepted in most countries and it tends to hold its value relative to other currencies;universal

What is financial fraud?

activities that illegally/improperly obtain money and other valuables from citizens and businesses through financial scams like insurance fraud, lottery fraud, scamming business propositions, pyramid schemes, etc.
- 1% of people with credit cards have bee

What are environmental crimes?

improper/illegal disposal of trash/hazardous waste; progressive laws have been established
- the cost of proper disposal = expensive which provide opportunities for TOC groups
CONCERN: illegal disposal of radioactive waste like a "dirty bomb

What are quasi-states?

boundaries but the government is weak and has little control over the territory like Afghanistan

What are almost states?

regions/areas in another country that functions as its own state like the Kurdish area in Iraq

What are black spots?

areas in a state that are ungoverned like the tribal region in Pakistan which is home to Taliban and al Qaeda

What is a failed state?

A state in which the central authority has broken down; no government like Somalia and they are ripe for the formation of TOCs and terrorism

What are some similarities between TOC groups and terrorist organizations?

- both operate secretly/underground
- use muscle/ruthlessness to produce mainly civilian victims
- intimidation is a characteristic in both
- use similar tactics like kidnapping, assassinations, and extortion
- exert control over people in the groups
- us

What are some differences between TOC groups and terrorist organizations?

- Terrorist groups are usually ideologically/politically motivated, whereas TOCS are profit-oriented
- Terrorists often compete with governments for legitimacy, TOCs don't impede the maximizing profits
- Terrorists relish media attention/oftentimes exert

What are some impediments to TOC groups cooperating with terrorist groups?

- co-located; come into conflict as a result of competition for criminal activities/territories
- decreased margin of profit; both groups demand high levels of loyalty and alliances with other groups may jeopardize that
- a number of terrorist orgs = ephe

What is the continuum of Terrorism and TOC groups?

- Terrorism
- Alliances/Cooperation between TOC groups/terrorist orgs. for mutual gain and goal accomplishment
- Terrorists use criminal activities for financing, other operational purposes
- No relationships or coexistence in a geographic area
- TOC grou

What are the three reasons for TOCs and Terrorist groups to cooperate?

1. Partnership Motivations and Disincentives: partnership can be a force multiplier/strategic weakness; may have skills/contacts that the other group needs
2. Appropriation of Tactics: where TOCs/terrorist groups acquire tactics from each other to achieve

What occurred because of the Cold War?

it resulted in a paradigm shift in terms of intelligence after this war ended

What was the primary criticism by the National Commission on Terrorist attacks?

various intelligence agencies failed to cooperate, share info, and communicate with one another which led to the USA PATRIOT Act which gave more power to law enforcement and intelligence agencies

When did the intelligence community get reorganized?

through the creation of the position of Director of National Intelligence (DNI) with the passage of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorist Prevention Act of 2004
- improved the cooperation/coordination of the American intelligence community

What were the multiple levels that intelligence failures can occur at?

1. lowest level of intelligence chain; fail to collect critical/applicable intelligence info
2. Once it's collected, intelligence agencies fail to recognize its importance, link it with other pertinent info, or interpret it in a useable policy format, ana

What tasks are involved with the Director of National Intelligence (DNI)?

titular head of the intelligence community (IC); advises the president on national security intelligence matters
- ensure timely and objective national intelligence
- establish objectives/priorities for collection, analysis, production, and dissemination

What are the intelligence agencies under the DNI?

- Air Force Intelligence, National Geospatial Intelligence Agency, Dep. of Treasury, Dep. of Energy, National Reconnaissance Office, DHS, NSA, DIA, Dep. State, Marine Corps Intelligence, Navy Intelligence, Coast Guard Intelligence, Army Intelligence, FBI,

What are the dimensions of intelligence?

1. Homeland Security: interested in collecting domestic intelligence about impending attacks, terrorists, and their activities
2. Foreign: intelligence about what is transpiring in other countries relative to terrorists and state actions
3. Military: cent

What are the five different types of intelligence collection activities?

Human Intelligence, Signals Intelligence, Measures and Signatures Intelligence, Imagery Intelligence, and Open Source Intelligence

What is Human Intelligence (HUMINT)?

the collection of intelligence by field agents and other individuals or human sources and there are two types which are:
- Clandestine HUMINT: the secret relationships forged between American Intelligence personnel and foreign sources; espionage
- Overt H

What is Signals Intelligence (SIGINT)?

interception of electronic communications and deriving intelligence from those communications, include telephone, internet, facsimile, radio, and radar; effort to obtain info about impending attacks and about enemies/organizations
- Track or ID targets fo

What is Measures and Signatures Intelligence (MASINT)?

DIA; electronic sensors throughout the world to gather info-radar, infrared, seismic, and radiological detection devices; collect info about military/nuclear activities which allows us to collect info about nuclear programs and nuclear-powered vessels; N.

What is Imagery Intelligence (IMINT)?

Imagery analysis; National Geospatial Intelligence Agency; more sophisticated through satellite imaging and help monitor government activities in countries like Russia, China, Middle East, Asia, etc.

What is Open Source Intelligence (OSINT)?

collected from public/open data for the purpose of intelligence gathering; internet
-can provide hard intelligence about a specific activity or background info
-websites of terrorist orgs. are monitored and analysts can sometimes find useful info

What is the CIA?

Central Intelligence Agency; lead intelligence agency; uses a variety of methods to collect intelligence, with an emphasis on HUMINT
-Responsible for collating the info and providing answers to questions posed by policy makers in the White House, Congress

What are the four directorates of the CIA?

1. Operations: agency's clandestine arm that coordinates/evaluates clandestine HUMINT operations across the IC, also conducts counterintelligence/special activities as authorized by POTUS
2. Intelligence: provides timely, accurate, and objective all-sourc

What is the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA)?

Pentagon; responsible for military intelligence and focuses on strategic/tactical operations
- responsible for providing military-related intelligence and counterintelligence info to the secretary and deputy secretary of defense, DNI, and Chairman of the

What is the Defense Clandestine Service?

designed to enhance the DIA's espionage operations and to develop closer working relations with the CIA or Pentagon

What is the Department of Energy?

responsible for maintaining U.S. energy supplies, promoting energy research, and procuring additional sources of energy; nuclear energy = primary responsibility
- WMD construction materials; ensures the integrity/safety of the country's nuclear weapons, p

What is the responsibilities of the Office of Intelligence and Counterintelligence?

cyber-security program; promulgates security regulations for the nuclear energy industry
- prevent the spread of WMDs by providing expertise and technical analysis of foreign programs to determine if such weapons can be developed
- role in the collection

What is the Department of Homeland Security?

Created in 2002 to coordinate national efforts against terrorism; sizable intelligence function as part of its operations to provide national homeland security
-Includes: US Citizenship and Immigration Services, US Coast Guard, Customs and Border Protecti

What is the Office of Intelligence and Analysis?

responsible for coordinating the department's intelligence efforts; responsible for obtaining intelligence about questionable financial activities including threats and vulnerabilities; must examine financial data and trouble spots to identify problems

What are the 5 intelligence priorities of the DHS?

1. Threats to Border Security
2. Threats of Radicalization and Extremism
3. Threats from Particular groups that may attempt to import WMD materials and possible terrorists from entering US
4. Protect the nation's critical infrastructure
5. Safeguard again

What is the Department of State?

Handles relations with other countries and helps put the President's foreign policy decisions into action; responsible for American foreign relations and maintains embassies and consulates across the world
- Very Interested in the political, social, and e

What is the Bureau of Counterterrorism and Countering Violent Extremism?

develops coordinated strategies and secure approaches to defeat terrorism abroad and secure counterterrorism cooperation of international partners

What is the International Security and Nonproliferation Unit?

negotiates with foreign governments in an effort to decrease the spread of nuclear weapons and other WMDS

What is the Conflict and Stabilization Office?

they monitor conditions in other countries that lead to destabilization which can increase terrorism and provides assistance to other countries to improve their efforts to counter terrorism

What is the Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons?

International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Office assists other countries in countering their drug trafficking while this office works with other countries to counter human trafficking

What is the Department of Treasury?

key role in terrorist financing and money laundering which are primary concerns; attempts to decrease funding available to terrorist orgs.

What is the Office of Foreign Assets Control?

enforces economic and trade sanctions against targeted foreign countries, terrorists, and international narcotics traffickers; enforce trade sanctions against countries that engage in the proliferation of WMDs; North Korea

What is the Office of Terrorist Financing and Financial Crimes?

programs to control money laundering. terrorist financing, and criminal activities both domestic and international

What is the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN)?

network connecting local, state, and federal law enforcement in financial crimes investigations; focuses on a number of financial crimes

What is the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)?

An agency of the Department of Justice, is the lead federal law enforcement agency charged with the responsibility for combating controlled substance abuse; central agency in the US for combating the worldwide drug problem; interdict drugs coming into the

What are the two reasons the DEA is involved in the collection of H.S. intelligence?

1. the drug problem is international in scope and in some cases, threatens to topple legitimate governments
2. A number of terrorist groups are now using narcotics trafficking as a way to raise money

What are the three responsibilities of the Intelligence Division in the DEA?

1. Collect intelligence to support the DEA and more
2. Work with other law enforcement agencies to produce narcotics intelligence
3. Effectively report and analyze, exchange drug intelligence with other law enforcement agencies

What is the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)?

responsible for criminal law enforcement, domestic counterintelligence, domestic counterterrorism, and cybercrime investigation; primary agency for domestic terrorism
- Rooting out, identifying, and thwarting terrorist plots that occur on American soil; i

What are the five divisions of the National Security Branch?

1. Counterintelligence: collects intelligence and works to keep advanced weapons like WMDs from being compromised, protects IC secrets, protects our nation's critical infrastructure assets, and counters the activities of foreign spies, foreign intelligenc

What is the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGIA)?

combat support; support military operations and helps with counterterrorism/ Homeland Security; acquires and produces imagery and map-based intelligence info in support of national defense, HS, and navigation safety

What is Geospatial Intelligence?

exploitation and analysis of imagery and geospatial info to describe, assess, and visually depict physical features and geographically references activities on the earth
- Provides other agencies with images and info associated with the images; merging de

What is the National Reconnaissance Office(NRO)?

responsible for maintaining our country's system of satellite surveillance; reports to the DNI and Secretary of Defense; important in tracking terrorists and their activities
- Provides a "real-time" on-the-ground imagery which allows operatives to active

What is the National Security Agency (NSA)?

involved in SIGINT; collects SIGINT from a variety of sources including foreign communications, radar, and electronic communications through numerous ways
- Concerned with intercepting signals relative to terrorist plots that may occur in the US
- provide

Who is Edward Snowden?

former NSA contractor; He exposed the government for keeping personal records like our search history, financial records, and text messages.

What is the Coastwatch Program?

analyzes the manifests for prohibited materials and people who may be on watch lists

What is the five step process of the Intelligence Cycle?

1. Planning and Direction: management of the intelligence process and is conducted by the White House, DNI, National Security Council, etc.; can request specific info about an issue
2. Collection
3. Processing and Exploitation: info is collated and stored

What is the U.S. Northern Command?

range of responsibilities like coordinating the DOD's homeland defense and planning/providing military support to civil authorities
i.e. Hurricane Katrina

What is the US Special Operations Command (SOCOM)?

unified command including units from the army, marine, corps, navy, and air force; allows a flexible response when dealing with a problem like Counterterrorism, unconventional warfare, Reconnaissance, and Direct military action

What is the Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC)?

unit that was designed to study, plan, and carry out special operations and is a part of the US SOCOM; subunits like delta force, intelligence support, etc.

What is counterintelligence?

The protection of a nation's secrets; preventing a foreign government's illicit acquisition of secrets
- interested in preventing foreign government from obtaining critical info and prevent terrorist groups from acquiring potentially useful info; five pri

What are the five priorities of counterintelligence?

1. Keep WMD and other embargoed technology from falling into the wrong hands like terrorists or unstable countries
2. Protect the secrets of the US intelligence community
3. Protect the secrets of US government and contractors
4. Protect nation's critical

What is the National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC)?

represents the reforms that were implemented to improve intelligence as a result of the problems IDed in the wake of 9/11
3 primary functions:
1. analyze threats and examines domestic/foreign intelligence from all the agencies
2. serves as an info hub for

What are three forms of globalization of intelligence?

1. increased info sharing across borders/governments
2. number of countries like the US are involved in training intelligence officers in other countries in areas like investigations, surveillance, etc.
3. countries like US are providing technical assista

What is Domestic Industrial Espionage?

attempt to obtain our military/industrial secrets

What is the greatest threat to public safety?

the potential use of a WMD

What are WMDs?

weapons of mass destruction; can be biological, chemical, and nuclear
- have the potential to inflict widespread death, injury, and destruction, especially in heavy populated cities
- depending on the type, WMDs could have a negative impact on an economy

What is the primary purpose of WMDs?

residual effects that would be more destructive to a country; large-scale terrorist attacks enable and strengthen terrorist organizations; emboldened terrorists and served as an important recruitment tool and resulted in the proliferation of terrorist gro

What is the definition of a WMD?

any explosive, incendiary, poison gas, bomb, grenade, or rocket having a propellant charge of more than 4 oz, missile having an explosive/incendiary charge or more than .25 oz, or mine or similar device, disease/organism, designed to release radiation at

What is the National Terrorism Advisory System?

serves to alert the American people and HS agencies of a possible terrorist attack
- 3 advisories: bulletins, elevated threats, and imminent threats
System incorporates:
- Low, Guarded, Elevated, High-Severe and will provide a concise summary of the poten

What are the historical precedents for biological WMDs?

Biological WMDs: use of a bacteria, virus, or biological pathogen to attack or deliberately infect people, livestock, crops
- 184 BCE: Hannibal of Catharge; pots containing vipers onto enemy ships' decks
- 1495: Spanish; wine spiked with leprosy patient's

What is historical examples of using biological weapons in the US?

- 1763: British officers and blankets infected with small pox to Native Americans, Fort Pitt, PA; American Civil War
- Substantial increase in the use of chemical weapons during WWI
- 1950: East German gov't accused the US of scattering Colorado potato be

What are historical precedents for chemical WMDs?

Chemical WMD: manufactured highly toxic chemical that can sicken/kill humans or criminals or destroy plants; inhalation, transdermal, or exposure to the skin/ingestion
- As early as 1000 BC: Chinese used arsenic smoke; 431 BCE; Trojan War and Greeks used

What is the Geneva Protocol?

1925; signed and prohibited the use of asphyxiating poisonous gases and bacteriological methods of warfare but didn't prohibit the development/stockpile of these weapons

What is VX?

nerve gas that can kill if a single drop were applied to the skin

What countries have nuclear weapons?

US, Russia, England, France, Pakistan, North Korea, India, China, Israel

What is a nuclear/radiological attack?

mounted in several ways; an aggressor could obtain a nuclear weapon, smuggle it in the US and detonate it
- the perp could combine radiological materials with a conventional explosive device and ignite it, hoping to spread radiological materials across a

What raises the most concern in terms of WMDs?

nuclear devices; catastrophic destruction, mass casualties, and nuclear radiation, long-term issues
i.e. Chernobyl, Fukushima Daiichi

What are the two ways a terrorist could acquire a nuclear weapon?

1. Steal/purchase one that has been constructed by a nuclear power
2. Could acquire the materials and construct weapons; more likely to occur

What counties pose nuclear challenges?

North Korea, Pakistan, and Iran
- North Korea is very isolated/poor, but does possess nuclear weapons/tech. which are capable of striking the US and Pakistan is problematic; unstable

What occurred in 2015 between US and Iran?

the US along with five other countries negotiated a deal with Iran to prevent it from developing nuclear weapons
- Decrease Iran's capacity to enrich uranium and decrease its stockpile of enriched uranium for a decade
- Highly enriched uranium is used to

What is the most likely scenario for smuggling nuclear weapons and materials?

terrorists attempt to smuggle materials/nuclear weapons, "missing" materials and if there were smuggling attempts:
- they'll face many challenges beyond security
- difficulty transporting which decreases the likelihood that terrorists will be able to deto

What other methods that could create substantial damage in possible terrorist attacks?

dirty bomb and an attack on a nuclear power plant/ nuclear facility

What is a dirty bomb?

use conventional but are wrapped in or contain radioactive materials; could contain radioactive waste products that are produced at commercial power plants

What are examples of attempts to use a dirty bomb?

- 1996: Chechnya Islamic rebels planted one in a park in Moscow; didn't detonate
- 2002: Abdullah Al Muhajir aka Jose Padilla, arrested for plotting to construct/detonate dirty bomb

What is the first step in critical infrastructure protection?

determination of the required level of security for a given asset; imperative that all facilities with nuclear and radiological materials have the highest security standards

What are problems with biological WMDs for Homeland Security?

less cumbersome and easier to use than nuclear materials, don't know borders, could easily spread the disease to other countries as a result of animal, plant, human, migration and the winds like the Bird Flu, Swine/H1N1 virus, Middle East respiratory synd

What is the greatest fear of biological WMDs for Homeland Security?

development of new organisms; containment and prevention

What is biological terrorism?

use of biological weapons by non-state government groups, including religious cults, militant groups, and individuals to inflict harm on a wider population

What are biological weapons?

infectious agents; employ living micro-organisms or pathogens/toxins produced by living organisms to attack human beings, animals and/or plants

What are the three general categories of biological agents?

bacterial organisms, viruses, and toxins

What is the priority system in terms of national risk developed by the CDC?

1. easily transmitted among people
2. result in a high mortality rate
3. result in a public panic/social disruption
4. require special action for public health
1. moderately easily disseminated
2. result in moderate morbidity and low

What are bacterial organisms?

cause diseases such as anthrax or the plague; group of usually single-celled organisms that come in many different shapes, sizes, and forms but some release toxins that cause diseases
- result of eating contaminated food or the victi

What are viruses?

can cause a host of dangerous diseases like Ebola, HIV, Hepatitis, Smallpox, avian influenza, etc.
- also responsible for a number of less serious medical ailments = common cold, cold sores, chickenpox
-microscopic living organism that can grow/reproduce

Which is the most dangerous biological WMD?


What are toxins?

Chemicals that harm tissues or trigger host immune responses that cause damage; not biological substances; derived from plants/animals
- biologically derived poisons/toxins and have the same effect associated with chemical weapons

For biological weapons, victims can be exposed via 3 potential routes which are?

1. Skin Contact: least dangerous
2. Gastrointestinal: contamination of food/water
3. Pulmonary
Most effective mode of delivery = exposure

What are potential problems for biological weapons?

can be deployed and it may be days/weeks before the deployment is evident; more rapid effect and delay in symptoms

What are the four requirements to weaponize a biological agent?

1. payload/agent must be obtained and in sufficient quantities, depending on agent and desired impact
2. must have a container/structure that allows delivery; packaged so it can effectively deliver to a target-intact when dispersed
3. Adequate delivery sy

What are the two methods of dispersing a biological weapon?

1. Line Source: most effective; results in the biological agent being effectively dispersed over a large geographic area (i.e. truck/air sprayer that moves perpendicular to the wind during an inversion)
2. Point Source: uses small packets/containers of th

What are the factors that are useful in assessing the threat of bioterrorism?

1. Value of the asset to the defender
2. Potential harm of the biological agent
3. Vulnerability to biological weapons

What are the most common agents to be concerned?

Sarin and Ricin

What are the types of chemicals that can be used on chemical weapons?

- Blister agents: intended to come into contact with the victim's skin, result in a low mortality rate but cause burns/blisters to the skin; contain acid-forming compounds, common = mustard gas
- Blood agents: chemical weapons that when consumed, prevent

What are the two categories of nerve agents and their definitions?

1. G-Series: sarin, tabun, and Somani, deadly and their release would result in high mortality rates; dissipate fairly quickly, danger from inhalation
2. V-Series: more persistent; remain in the environment for a long period of time, increase the likeliho

What are advantages of chemical weapons?

- inexpensive to produce/procure as compared to biological/nuclear weapons
- readily available chemicals
- not hard to construct and easy to use
- more manageable delivery systems but are difficult to manufacture in large quantities without labs

What are the four ways by which a terrorist group could acquire a chemical weapon?

1. Manufacture the weapons
2. Acquire commercially available chemicals that can be used as weapons
3. Theft of chemical munitions from the military
4. Provision of chemical weapons by a state sponsor

Why is delivery difficult for chemical weapons?

1. would require a large volume of a chemical weapon to have significant effects
2. Dispersal of agents = problematic which is a loss during delivery due to weather

What are the factors constraining terrorists from using WMDs?

organizational capabilities, financial resources, logistical resources, knowledge/skill/acquisition, materials/technical acquisition, production, weaponization and delivery and state sponsorship

What are the four criteria to judge terrorist groups and their capacity to use a WMD?

1. Salience of identity
2 Collective incentives where a group feels that it has been ignored, harmed, or denied by others
3. Capacity for collective action; cohesion and ability to mobilize
4. Must have the opportunity to acquire and use it

Why is border security a critical component of homeland security?

it is essential to secure the borders to ensure that terrorists do not enter the country and so that WMDs aren't smuggled across

What are the goals of the majority of illegal immigrants?

to seek employment, a better life, or escape from tyrannical conditions in their home country, and they wish to participate in the American Dream

How has the number of illegal immigrants changed throughout the last few decades?

has increased substantially over the last three decades
- 1980: 2 million to 4 million
- 2000: 8.5 million
- 2010: exceeded over 11 million
- 2012: 11-12 million

The immigration of Mexican nationals into the US has resulted in what?

in a substantial amount of xenophobia/anger towards immigrants

What was the SB1070 Bill?

Arizona's legislation about immigration; many of the bill's provisions have been ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in 2012
- Only one provision remained where officers are required to request proof of legal status papers from suspected illegal i

What countries are the majority of immigrants coming from and what states are they living in mostly?

- 42.4% come from Asia
- Mexico: 6.7 million
- El Salvador: 690,000
-2014: legal immigrants = 13.2%
California with 2.8 million residing there and have 19.5% of all legal immigrants and Texas with 1.8 million residing there
-DHS reports that close to 32 m

Anxiety and Angst revolve around what two issues surrounding illegal immigration and border reform?

1. Securing the border from would-be terrorists who may illegally enter the US
2. Dealing with about 11 million undocumented immigrants who currently reside in the US

Why do people think that the US must secure its border and expel the illegal immigrants?

- they believe that the country can't develop and implement an effective immigration policy until it has achieved this level of security
- several sectors of the economy like the agriculture, construction, and unskilled labor requires this illegal workfor

What factors contribute to the increase in US immigration?

- shortages in food, energy, and water
- climate change and human demand
- economic and decreased environmental conditions

Enhanced border security might aid in keeping what problems from affecting the US?

- much decrease in volume of drugs coming into the country which may decrease violence

Why are Mexico and Canada problematic when it comes to border security?

- Mexico is problematic because of the number of illegal immigrants and human smuggling rings
- Canada is problematic because of how long, desolate, and unprotected the border is, like using forged documents

What occurred in Tucson, Arizona regarding illegal border migration?

- various routes used by illegal immigrants to enter the Tucson, Arizona area from Mexico
- thousands of entry points between our ports of entry
- shows that the US border is extremely porous and is difficult to detect due to blending in with indigenous p

What are countries of special interest?

countries that have been identified by the intelligence community as countries that could export people to the US to commit terrorist acts
- i.e. Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Pakistan, Cuba, Brazil, Ecuador, China, Yemen, Rus

What country has been providing support to radical Islamic groups; known as Cedulas and provide social security cards to enter the US?


What are the two components of the new philosophy of border control?

1. the US has pushed the borders out and away from its shores; border/security measures were implemented in countries where people and material originated, to prevent US entry
2. Profiling of people and goods at their originating point; method of decreasi

What were the six Muslim-majority countries that Trump banned travel to and from through an executive order?

Syria, Iran, Yemen, Libya, Somalia, and Sudan

What did this new philosophy on border security focus on?

Prevention which is the most important part of any strategy to subjugate aggression and terrorism
- Military: deploy resources to prevent an enemy from attacking; defense and protecting critical assets are of paramount importance

What were the North American Complementary Immigration Policies?

they called for the US to work with Mexico/Canada to develop compatible screening protocols at the borders; facilitate the ID of people coming from Mexico or Canada who would do harm to the US

What were the other two concepts involved with Prevention?

- Interdiction: where you attempt to stop a plot once it has begun
- Deterrence: occurs when potential terrorists believe that defenses are insurmountable and therefore don't attempt intrusion; can't be easily measured

What were the primary objectives for border patrol when they placed personnel and equipment as close to the border as possible?

deter/prevent illegal crossings and to break up smuggling rings as opposed to apprehending illegal immigrants after they crossed the border which previously had been the policy

What occurred as a result of the criticisms/politics for immigration policies?

programming became less vigorous; again began to emphasize apprehension as opposed to prevention/deterrence

What is the Secure Border Initiative (SBI)?

multi-year project that attempted to secure the Northern and Southern borders; intended to be comprehensive, addressing a number of deficiencies that led to increased immigration
- more patrol agents, expanded detention/removal capabil

What was the Border Security and Immigration Enforcement Improvements Executive Order?

signed by POTUS Trump; directed all departments to deploy all lawful means to secure the nation's border through a fence construction

What are some impediments for expanded detention and removal capabilities?

- length of time it has taken to deport/remove illegal immigrants
- Program was applied to the southwest border because it has the highest level of illegal immigration

With improved technology, what two strategies are used to increase border security?

1. prevent illegal immigrants from entering the US
2. apprehending and removing aliens who have violated US immigration laws

With increased infrastructure protection, what are the types of fencing used?

1. Primary Pedestrian Fencing which is directly located on the border in a number of urban areas to prevent pedestrian crossing
2. Secondary or Triple Fencing

What are the three principles involved with an enhanced enforcement of immigration laws and interior enforcement as deterrence?

1. workplace enforcement whereby illegal immigrants are removed/deported
2. lengthy detention to convince immigrants to not enter the US illegally
3. mass removal of illegal immigrants to eliminate incentives for them to find work

What was Operation Coyote and Project Southbound?

- Operation Coyote: focused on human smuggling at the Rio Grande Valley area in Texas
- Project Southbound: focuses on the arresting and removing gang members who immigrated illegally

What is the Worksite Enforcement Unit?

focuses on egregious employers involved in criminal activity/worker exploitation and conducts raids on various employers

What is the US Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS)?

responsible for providing visas to immigrants who desire to work in the US

What was the US-Visit Program?

collects biometric data (fingerprints) on people entering and leaving the US; helps ID those who overstay their visas

What are the two types of visas?

1. Non-immigrant Visas: diplomats, business people, temporary workers, and students
2. Immigrant Visas: spouses, fianc�s of citizens, family members and certain workers

What is the Non-Visa or Visa Waiver Program?

38 non-visa countries and travelers from those countries aren't required to obtain a visa; passport with biometric data
- denied visas = watch-list or who have suspect documents

Who are the two largest trading partners of the US?

Mexico and Canada

What is the Secure Electronic Network for Travelers Rapid Inspection (SENTRI)?

implemented on the Mexican border; allow to use special traffic lanes and generally bypass the inspection process; low-risk and cross border repeatedly
- allows CBP personnel to concentrate their efforts on unverified vehicles

What is the NEXUS program?

similar to SENTRI; Canadian border

What was the Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002?

resulted in a number of maritime security measures being enacted

What was the Transportation Workers Identification Credential Program?

mandates that all people in a port area must have an ID card that is only issued after a background investigation

What are the two programs that have been implemented to enhance cargo security, prior to its arrival in the US?

- Customs Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (CTPAT): program that attempts to guarantee the security of cargo at the original country
- Container Security Initiative (CSI): program whereby CBP agents are positioned at major ports throughout the world an

The connection of cyberspace and terrorism is evidenced in many attacks like in what countries?

- Mumbai, India, Paris, France, San Bernardino, US
For all these attacks, terrorists used the Internet, social media, and smart technology to carry out the attacks and evade law enforcement for a long period of time

What is cyberspace?

A global domain within the information environment consisting of the interdependent network of information technology infrastructures, including the Internet, telecommunications networks, computer systems, and embedded processors and controllers.

What are the three methods for attacking computers and our cyber infrastructure?

1. Physical/Conventional Attack: an attack on a facility with the aim of destroying its infrastructure; can temporarily destroy communications capabilities, disrupting a number of important activities like recovery
2. Electronic: electromagnetic pulse (EM

What was the first cyberterrorism attack?

Stuxnet" malware - destroyed the centrifuges in the Iranian plutonium enrichment plant in Natanz and it was available through the dark web to terrorists

What is hacking and hackers?

- Hacking: attacking computers/infrastructure using some form of intrusive code or program
- Hackers: people who deliberately gain (or attempt to gain) unauthorized access to computer systems

What are the three categories of hackers?

1. nation-states such as China, Russia, or North Korea
2. criminals who attack computers for financial gain
3. anarchists, terrorists, and hackers who attempt to gain access to computers to disrupt

What was the one of the most publicized cyber attacks?

Democratic National Committee (DNC) during 2016 Presidential election, releasing more than 20k emails
- NIC attributed the cyberattack to Russia who wanted to derail the Clinton campaign

What was IoTs?

another tool in cyberattacks; one of the most effective weapons for all different types of hackers; can disrupt internet service

What is the most vulnerable industry for cyber attacks?


What percentage of all cyber attacks have a financial or espionage motive?


What is cyberterrorism?

Unlawful attacks and threats of attacks on computers, networks, and information; the merging of cyberspace, which is a virtual world where computer programs function and data move and terrorism, the premeditated, politically motivated violence penetrated

What types of crimes are associated with cyberspace?

- information theft ranging from financial/personal records to military intelligence or industrial espionage
- can alter or destroy computer systems, affecting our critical infrastructure

What is the typology of those who would attack computer systems?

- Hackers: those individuals who attempt to penetrate computers and networks for the challenge, tests computer skills
- Computer Criminals: motivated by financial reward; hack computers to get credit card info or personal info for gains
- Terrorists: nefa

What are some criminal acts facilitated by the internet?

- attacks on financial institutions, businesses, industries, cyberstalking, obscenity like child pornography, child molestation, sex tourism in which pedophiles seek underage victims, distribution of digital hate, communication among criminal/terrorist gr

What are the most common ways for internet scams?

Non-payment of non-delivery

What is cyberwarfare?

State-sponsored activity designed to cripple another state by penetrating its computer networks to cause damage and/or disruption; attack by one nation-state on another nation-state; cyberterrorism conducted by a country
- gain economic/military

What were the actions of the Cybersecurity National Action Plan signed by Obama?

1. establish the Commission on Enhancing National Cybersecurity
2. modernize government IT with a 3.1 billion info technology modernization fund
3. empower Americans to secure their devices with enhanced measures like biometrics
4. invest more than $19 bi

What is required in order for an attack to be considered a cyber terrorist attack?

it must " be sufficiently destructive or disruptive to generate fear comparable to that from physical aspects of terrorism; lead to death/injury, extended power outages, crashes, water contamination, or major economic losses

What are the advantages to cyberterrorism?

- inexpensive
- anonymous
- enormous amount of targets
- doesn't require physical training, traveling, and the physical risk associated with other types of terrorism
- can potentially affect copious amounts of people

What are the two advantages governments have that terrorist organizations can't overcome?

1. governments can allocate billions of dollars to the development of cyber security and warfare
2. wealth of expertise

What is the primary problem for the US with cyber attacks or warfare?

our nation isn't prepared to reconstitute the internet after a mass destruction

What is the National Cyber Response Coordination Group?

responsible for coordinating Internet emergencies

What are the significant cyber gaps?

- lack of formal trip wires to indicate an attack is underway; no formal mechanisms to quickly ID breaches
- lack of accountability/clarity on which institutions provide reconstitution support; no workable action plan
- lack of resources for institutions

What responsibilities do companies have for cyber attacks?

- establish a single point with the authority to reconstitute the internet if there was a breach
- companies should have a strategic plan that establishes priorities when reconstituting an internet breach
- need to have EWS in place that quickly notify ma

What changes have Kane identified that would improve security?

- remove cyber anonymity; ensure IDs are traceable to ID
- mandate that institutions use and constantly update security software
- decrease the amount of time computers are alone
- institutions and internet providers should periodically check their comput

What is the most important issue in deterring cyberattacks?

there is no agency responsible for combating them

What are the objectives of DHS's National Cyber Defense Division?

1. build/maintain an effective national cyberspace response system
2. implement a cyber-risk management program for protection of critical infrastructure

What are the six steps used in the process by DHS to Scan Computer Systems for Malware?

1. Install/Update Sensors
2. Automated Search for Flaws
3. Collect Results from Departments/Agencies
4. Triage/Analyze Results
5. Fix Worst First
6. Report Progress
All Systems are scanned within 72 hours

What is netwar?

an emerging mode of conflict/crime at societal levels, including measures short of traditional war, in which the protagonists use network forms of organization and related doctrines, strategies, and technology attuned to the information age

What are Consistent Elements in Terrorist websites?

1. organization history and activities
2. social/political background
3. accomplishments/exploits
4. account leader/ founders' biography
5. political and ideological aim information
6. enemy criticisms
7. up-to-date news
8. maps of controlled territory or

What are the three different audiences for terrorist websites?

current/potential supporters, international public opinion, and enemies

What is psychological warfare?

Use of fear and terror to help defeat enemy; spread false information about enemies, can undermine efforts to secure support/materials for war
-instills fear and a sense of hopelessness and exaggerated statistics

What is publicity and propaganda?

they can say what they desire; 3 structures to justify their rhetoric:
1. note that they have no choice but to resort to violence; portray themselves as being persecuted; convince others to evaluate how they are treated
2. portray themselves as freedom fi

What is data mining and fund-raising?

- Data Mining: collect info on enemies like maps and descriptions
- Fund-raising: propaganda to increase sympathy for a cause; a ploy to raise money

What is recruitment and mobilization?

post propaganda with religious decrees and anti- American rhetorics and try to convince others to join

What is networking and info sharing?

- Networking: maintaining contact with others
- Info Sharing: many sites that contain info that can assist terrorists; detailed, valuable online training

What is planning and coordination?

coordinate terrorist attacks across the globe

What are the six proclaimed goals of ISIS?

1. recruit to the cause
2. consolidate local support and increase territorial control
3. establish a single Islamic state for Syria and Iraq
4. raise money
5. spread propaganda
6. manipulate military tactics

What does FBI's Cybercrime division do?

- investigates cybercrime, stops computer intrusions/malicious code, ID and thwart online sexual predators, counteract operations that target US intellectual property, etc.

What are the three units of FBI's Cybercrime Division?

1. Cyber Squad: located at HQ; protect against and investigate computer intrusions/theft of intellectual property and personal info
2. Cyber Action Teams (CAT): highly trained computer forensics and MC experts; nationally and internationally
3. National C

What are the three divisions in DHS's Cyber Security Systems?

1. National Cyber Security Protection System: works with all civilian fed. deps. to detect intrusions and prevention to safeguard the federal IT system; EINSTEIN
2. National Cyber Security and Communications Integration Center: 24/7 center; intrusions are

What were the numerous types of destructive events advised by the DHS that were to be considered and responded to using homeland security response mechanisms?

terrorist attacks, fires, floods, earthquakes, tornadoes, hurricanes, and human-made events like nuclear/chemical explosions

When considering response to homeland security incidents, what must we include?

these other potential problems and in actuality, at some level, the response to a natural disaster will contain many of the operational elements as does a response to a terrorist attack

What is FEMA?

Federal Emergency Management Agency; the primary agency when disaster occurs and has primary responsibility for response which is part of the DHS
- After 9/11 there was a decreased importance of FEMA; the DHS was concentrating on preventing and responding

What were some problems with FEMA during events like Hurricane Katrina?

- FEMA confiscated hospital supplies
- Delayed fine equipment because of community relations and sexual harassment training
- Water trucks not allowed
- Ineffective food, water, and voucher distribution

In 2016, what were the new objectives developed by DHS to ensure resilience to disasters?

- mitigate hazards, enhance preparedness, ensure effective emergency response, and rapidly recover

What is the National Response Framework?

A guide to how the nation responds to all types of disasters and emergencies; effort by DHS to clarify the roles/responsibilities of those who are involved in responding to a significant catastrophe
- Guidance on responding to terrorist attacks/catastroph

What is an important concept within the National Response Framework?

Mitigation which is the process whereby we attempt to decrease the impact of hazards, terrorist attacks, natural disasters, or human-made disasters before they occur
- Includes Risk Management: a process of hardening/increasing the safety features associa

What is a layered response inside the National Response Framework?

means that local governments are responsible first and state governments are second for responding to some catastrophe
- "Significant National Emergency" - prevents the federal government from assuming responsibility for every mishap, like minor ones and

What were deficiencies in the Original Plan for the National Response Plan?

- confusion over the federal role in catastrophes relative to state/local responsibilities; not clearly articulated
- overly bureaucratic and difficult to apply in operational terms
- not a true operational plan as it identified relationships among many a

What are the local responsibilities under the National Response Framework?

- when an incident occurs, local authorities are the first responders; immediate responsibility for controlling/responding to the event to decrease loss of life/property
- must have a multitude of resources at their disposal like with public health, law e

What are the state responsibilities under the National Response Framework?

Governor; directly responsible for ensuring that a state has an organizational framework/capacity to respond to a terrorist disaster
- must effectively communicate event info to the public, governor activates the National Guard, state police, etc., commun

What are the federal responsibilities under the National Response Framework?

the president is responsible for leading federal response efforts when a terrorist attack/disaster occurs
- DHS secretary is the federal officer responsible for incident management; prevention, preparation, response, and recovery operational preparedness

What are the four scenarios when the federal government assumes command and control for disasters or terrorist attacks?

1. a federal department/agency acting under its own authority has requested DHS assistance
2. the resources of the state/local authorities are overwhelmed and federal assistance requested
3. more than one federal agency has been substantially involved in

What are the five steps of response to a natural disaster?

1. Prevention: developing the capabilities to avoid, stop, or prevent terrorist acts and other imminent threats to national security and includes intelligence/info sharing, interdiction/disruption, screening, search, detection, forensics and attribution

What are the thee core capabilities involved with protection?

- Planning: must occur at all levels of local, state, federal, continuous process; allows orgs. to respond effectively across the life cycle of a potential crisis and inclusive and detailed
- Public Info and Warning: must be informed quickly and correctly

What are the 8 tasks involved in planning?

1. flexible planning process
2. build community partnerships for info sharing
3. ID and prioritize critical infrastructures and determine how best to protect them
4. assess vulnerabilities, risks, and coordinate protective measures
5. determine joint prot

What are the seven tasks involved with public information and warning?

1. increased public awareness
2. determine what info stakeholders and how the info can be shared
3. develop info sharing requirements and processes for the community
4. info shared must be accessible
5. promptly share important info with the public, gover

What are the three core capabilities for protection and prevention?

- intelligence and info must be shared timely and with all appropriate partners, government agencies, and private/nonprofit sectors to ensure that terrorist threats can be counteracted and to ensure that there is a prompt/effective response to emergency s

What are the seven core capabilities for mitigation and recovery?

1. Identify threats and hazards
2. Risk and Disaster resilience assessment
3. Planning
4. Community Resilience
5. Public Info and Warning
6. Long-term Vulnerability decreased
7. Operational Coordination

What is response?

building of the necessary capabilities to save lives, protect property and environment, ensure that basic needs are met
- when an incident occurs, it triggers a number of processes/procedures on the part of a number of agencies

What is the Emergency Support Function Annexes (ESFs)?

developed to provide a structure for coordinating support for a federal response to a disaster; coordinate assistance to the states when responding to an incident

What is recovery?

responsibility of FEMA; types of assistance required for this stage vary from community to community
- Short Term Considerations: restore services like transportation, utilities, food, etc.
- Long Term Considerations: redevelopment of affected areas

What is the Surge Capacity Force?

If an incident exceeds the capacity of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) disaster workforce, the Secretary of the Department of Homeland Security is authorized to activate the DHS Surge Capacity Force (SCF) to augment the federal response to

What is the Stafford Act?

-outlines and coordinates disaster response efforts and authorizes the president to provide support to the states in such emergencies

What are shortcomings of the Stafford Act?

speed and size of disaster efforts; provided to communities, "emergencies" and "major disasters" level of money depends

What is the National Incident Management System?

A: a National Crisis Response System that provides a Consistent, Nationwide approach for Federal, State, Local, and Tribal Governments; the Private Sector;and Nongovernmental Organizations to work Effectively and Efficiently together to Prepare for, Respo

What are the five components of the National Incident Management System?

1. Preparedness: centers on a unified approach whereby the NIMS structure is integrated into agencies emergency operations; relative to communications, resource management, and command
2. Communications and Info Management
3. Resource Management
4. Comman

What is a common operating picture?

established/maintained by gathering, collating, synthesizing, and disseminating incident info to all appropriate parties; allows on-scene/off-scene personnel to have the same info about the incident, including the availability and location of resources an

What is Resource Management?

resources needed for the initial response through recovery and must be made available almost immediately

What is a Incident Command System (ICS)?

primary on-the-ground control mechanism; command center where all efforts to respond to and mitigate an incident are coordinated
- decrease the probability of errors and affords better coordination of effort
- results in unity of command whereby one perso

What are the four section chiefs for ongoing management and maintenance?

Operations, Planning, Logistics, and Finance and Administration

What is the National Disaster Medical System?

consists of a number of teams that would respond to medical disasters

What are National Strike Teams?

especially for low-probability, high-consequence events; could be created for different kinds of hazards and dispersed regionally across the nation

What are the key roles police play in homeland security?

- first responders for a terrorist attack/disaster; 24/7 available
- help prevent terrorist attacks
- mitigate a disaster's impact
- ID and safeguard critical infrastructure
- charged with the investigation when a terrorist attack occurs

What is community policing and its two ingredients?

the dominant modality by which police departments deliver services; assigned community policing duties/activities
- more effective when dealing with issues and providing services to citizens
1. Problem Solving: police will not only re

What occurred for the Muslim community after 9/11?

ethnic tensions worsened for Muslims for 9/11; there are multiple incidents in which they were attacked/assaulted; increase in hate crimes
- 3.3 million living in US = 3.3% of population

What are four obstacles to positive relations between the police and communities?

1. distrust between Arab/Muslim communities and the police
2. lack of cultural awareness
3. language barriers
4. concerns about immigration status/fear of deportation

What is a police liaison officer?

help decrease distrust; becomes the advocate for the community and helps ID problems and generate support and inclusion = effective means to decrease distrust

What is Multiculturalism?

a perspective recognizing the cultural diversity of the US and promoting equal standing for all cultural traditions

What is paramount in preventing crime and terrorist attacks?

Public education which serves to:
- reduce fear, reduce community relations, encourage people to provide the police with valuable info
- Public education programs should have specific goals which the primary one = elicit support and info from the public r

What behaviors are encouraged by police for people to engage in?

know how to observe, know what is suspicious, know how to report, know what to report, and know what happens next

What are citizen academies?

they help educate people; open to the public and can serve as an excellent tool for informing the public and gaining trust/support

What are some examples of other public education modalities?

- disseminate pamphlets, public outreach and educational programming, community forums and speaker bureaus

In a preliminary study using Washington DC Metro Police Data, what scale did they use to look for keywords, specific times and locations?

1. atypicality of reported activities
2. attractiveness of targets
3. whether the call was part of a cluster
4. whether a police report was taken
Demonstrated that data mining of police calls for service could produce investigative leads

What is the inventory of the critical infrastructure?

local police departments do this, ID assets and develop response plans, especially given the numerous potential targets that may exist in a given jurisdiction and that attacks on different types of targets present dissimilar challenges to the police and o

In identifying critical infrastructure assets, what were the two purposes?

1. allows the departments to develop response plans
2. results in focusing attention on areas that are of interest to possible terrorists

What do critical incident response plans include and why do they often fail?

- info about command/control, tactical responses and use of other support agencies like disaster, medical, fire, chemical and radiological personnel
Often fail due to:
- uncoordinated leadership, failed communications, weak planning, resource con

What is private security?

those individuals, orgs, and services other than public law enforcement and regulatory agencies that are engaged primarily in the prevention/investigation of crime, loss, harm to specific individuals, orgs. or facilities

In private security, what would relations do?

improve joint responses to critical incidents, coordinate infrastructure protection, improve communications and data interoperability, bolster info and intelligence sharing, prevent/investigate high-tech. crime, and devise responses to workplace violence

What activities must occur for partnerships with police?

1. cooperative training on the development/implementation of potential terrorist profiles
2. mapping potential targets in a jurisdiction to include security assets
3. development and coordination of critical incident plans outlining responses to terrorist

A homeland security unit in police departments will have a number of specific responsibilities like what?

- manage terrorist and HS info like intelligence
- maintain a database of critical infrastructures and vulnerabilities
- investigate terrorist attacks/activities
- coordinate department responses to terrorist events, etc.

Officers assigned to a variety of units should be actively involved in some HS activities like what?

1. patrol
2. criminal investigation
3. crime analysis
4. intelligence
5. specialized tactical units (SWAT)
6. community relations and community policing

What is intelligence-led policing?

-agencies gathering intelligence and sharing information within their agency and with other agencies; essentially is the enhancement of police intelligence-gathering capacity, related closely to HS
- dictates that does not only begin collecting info about

What is intelligence?

the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations; the combination of credible info with quality analysis, info that has been evaluated and from which conclusions have been drawn

Intelligence Analysis should focus on what four important questions?

1. who poses threats?
2. what are the relationships among possible actors?
3. what is the MO of the threat?
4. what is needed to catch the offenders and prevent the incident?

Intelligence is a process that consists of what four steps?

1. collecting info from a variety of sources
2. collating and analyzing info, organized into a usable format
3. disseminate info
4. using intelligence and other info

What are some sources of intelligence raw data?

- travel agents, DMV records, wiretaps, financial records, credit card info, known associates, travel patterns, phone records, and daily activities

What is Link Analysis?

A data analysis technique that creates visual representations of data (e.g., charts with lines showing connections) from multiple data sources; one of the most useful methods of analyzing raw intelligence

What are the important rules to follow in the intelligence process?

ensure security is maintained, one must consider intelligence info from what it is, and intelligence units often collect any info possible

What are the three different products that may be needed/used by intelligence officers?

1. reports that aid in the investigation/apprehension of offenders/terrorists
2. reports that provide threat advisories in order to harden targets
3. strategic analysis reports to aid in planning and resource allocation

What is the difference between tactical and strategic intelligence?

- Tactical Intelligence: intelligence that is used to guide police operations; if the intelligence unit acquires info about a specific crime/event, then that info will be used to guide officers/detectives to either intercede in the event or apprehend them

What is a fusion center?

new innovation in intelligence collection; designed to facilitate the sharing and flow of info and it is a process that supports the implementation of risk-based info-driven prevention, response, and consequences management programs

What are the six types of situations for officer safety and responding to a terrorist attack?

1. traffic stops
2. residence visits
3. rallies/marches
4. confrontations/standoffs
5. revenge/retaliation
6. incident responses

For the immediate police response to a terrorist act, what guidelines need to be followed?

Collection, Evaluation, Collation, Analysis, Reporting, Dissemination, Feedback, and Re-Evaluation

What are methods used by terrorists to raise money?

1. criminal activities like bank robbery, kidnapping, extortion, and narcotics trafficking
2. donations from local and foreign supporters
3. assistance from supportive nation-states
4. contributions from wealthy individuals and organizations
5. white-coll

What occurred prior to 9/11 attacks in relation to terrorist financing/global money laundering?

- the federal government had done very little to counter the global money laundering
It was only after 9/11 that Congress and POTUS pursued money laundering and terrorist financing in an attempt to starve terrorist orgs.
- This late and haphazard attack o

What is the terrorist finance tracking program?

established to identify, track, pursue, and disrupt the terrorist network

Depriving terrorists of money can contribute to what two outcomes?

1. directly/indirectly affect a terrorist org.'s leadership, morale, and legitimacy
2. may have strategic implications

What is the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT)?

US Treasury Department; issues subpoenas here and supplies messaging services to thousands of financial institutions worldwide and use this data for counterterrorism measures

How was the money funded for the 9/11 moved here?

1. bank transfers to US banks
2. hijackers carrying traveler's checks into the US
3. credit/debit cards used to access foreign bank accounts

When attacking terrorist financing, authorities are concentrating on the 2 primary activities of?

fundraising and money laundering

What is money laundering?

Claiming illegal funds as a legitimate business transaction; an activity whereby ill-gotten fruits are cleansed- illegally derived funds are moved through the financial system and returned legitimate
1. the illegally derived money is placed i

What is terrorist financing?

mechanisms used by terrorists to raise funds; attempt to increase funds, transfer them without impediment or interception, and spend them for their terrorist activities
- want to protect the origin of the funds

What was the Money Laundering Act of 1986 and the Bank Secrecy Act of 1970?

- Money Laundering Act 1986: created several offenses focusing on money laundering
- BSA of 1970: required an institutional accounting of large currency transfers

What is due diligence?

required to determine the sources of financial transactions, creating a paper trail for any subsequent investigations

What percent of the US Gross Domestic Product is laundered annually?


What is the National Strategy for Combating Terrorist, Underground and Other Illicit Financing Act?

calls for the establishment of a national strategy and an annual evaluation of the strategy and its success

What is the Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering (FATF)?

created in 1989; US and other G7 countries; concerned with money laundering and transfers emanating from the narcotics trade; 34 members
- includes attacking terrorist financing and attempts to place pressure on nonmember nations to accept FATF's measures

What is macro-level terrorist funding?

large scale terrorist orgs. such as Al Qaeda, Hamas, ISIS, Hezbollah, solicit or raise funds for a variety of purposes like:
- funding of their extensive networks that span several countries that comes primarily from charities, benefactors, and TOC activi

What is micro-level terrorist funding?

local cells that may or may not be affiliated with a larger terrorist orgs; use the money to sustain themselves and fund localized terrorist activities
- operate legitimate businesses, engage in crime, and have relationships with local charities and suppo

What are the three distinct operations involved in terrorist financing?

1. earning or acquiring resources
2. moving or laundering money
3. storing or banking the money until it is needed

What are the variety of methods used by terrorist orgs. to acquire resources?

donor support of terrorism, criminal activity, charities, and legitimate businesses

What is Zakat?

almsgiving/charity where Muslims are asked to donate 1/40 of their income (if they are able); one of the five pillars of Islam and charity is a religious duty for all Muslims and practiced extensively with numerous Muslim charities worldwide

What percent of all charitable organizations are Islamic?

1/5 = 20% where there is widespread acceptance in the Muslim world because they provide human. aid and further and cement Islamic religious and cultural philosophies

What ways are used by terrorists to move or launder their money?

- precious commodities like gold/diamonds, bank and wire transfers, informal banking or hawaladars, and bulk cash

How important are precious commodities to terrorist organizations?

very important as they represent a funding source for terrorist groups; ISIS = trade of antiquities; looted archeological sites in Iraq/Syria makes $100 million
Most popular = tablets, manuscripts, and cunieforms

what are hawalas?

time-honored informal, underground banking system within the Muslim world; alternative remittance systems that involve the transfer of funds/assets from one individual to another using an informal banking system
1. someone desires to send mone

What are advantages to using a hawala?

- transfers funds in a very short period of time, no written records of the transfers; informal basis and no tax burden or government scrutiny

What are the two variations in the hawala system?

1. Under-invoicing: less than their value
2. Over-invoicing: more than than value

Who is America's closest ally in the Middle East?

Saudi Arabia where they sell large quantities of oil to the US and due to their abundance of oil money, they have been extensively involved in charities with significant amounts of this money going to terrorists in many countries like Afghanistan, Palesti

What is Wahhabism?

It is an extreme form of Islam that insists on a literal interpretation of the Quran; Saudi Arabia's brand of Islam; leads to the birth of extremist, closed, and fanatical streams, that accuse others of heresy, abolish and destroy them

What is ID Fraud and ID theft?

- Identity Fraud: process of using a false ID or another person's ID to obtain goods, services, or money; persisted/grown due to the Internet
- Identity Theft: procuring of this false ID regardless of its use; used to commit ID fraud in most cases

What are the three purposes of Identity Fraud and Identity Theft?

avoid watch-lists, obscure whereabouts, and gain unauthorized access

The open records program has resulted in what?

large number of nefarious people attempting to commit some forms of ID theft using info from the internet

What is the REAL ID Act?

best-know effort to counter ID fraud/theft, passed in 2005; establishes national standards for drivers license and must contain:
- a photo ID doc., DOB docs, SS proof, and docs. showing the person's name/address of principal residence

What is a breeder document?

when identity frauds create a new ID, fraudulent ID is then used to obtain one of these which are like a social security card, drivers' license, passport, or birth certificate and allows access to financial systems