~wine n dine~

what is wine?

water, alcohol, acids, etc.

9 styles of wines

- full red wines
- medium red wines
- light red wines
- rose wines
- rich white wines
- zesty white wines
- sweet white wines
- dessert wines
- sparkling wines

kinds of FULL RED WINES

cabernet sauvignon, syrah

kinds of MEDIUM RED WINES

merlot, zinfandel

kinds of LIGHT RED WINES

pinot noir, gamay

kinds of ROSE WINES

garnache rose, pinot noir rose

kinds of RICH WHITE WINES

chardonnay, viognier

kinds of ZESTY WHITE WINES

sauvignon blanc, gruner veltliner

kinds of SWEET WHITE WINES

moscato bianco, riesling

kinds of DESSERT WINES

port, sherry, madiera

kinds of SPARKLING WINES

champagne, cava, prosecco, sekt

9 red noble grapes

cabernet sauvignon
malbec
syrah
merlot
tempranillo
pinot noir
grenache
Nebbiolo sangiovese

9 white noble grapes

semillon
chenin blanc
moscato
viognier
chardonnay
riesling
gewurztraminer
sauvignon blanc
pinot grigio

where did famous wines originate?

europe

where do grapes grow?

between 20-40 degrees in both the northern and southern hemispheres

place name: BORDEAUX

grape name: CABERNET SAUVIGNON/MERLOT

place name: BURGUNDY (red)

grape name: PINOT NOIR

place name: BURGUNDY (white)

grape name: CHARDONNAY

place name: TUSCANY (chianti)

grape name: SANGIOVESE

place name: PIEDMONT (Borolo/Barbaresco)

grape name: NEBBIOLO

place name: LOIRE VALLEY (Sancere, Pouilly-Fume)

grape name: SAUVIGNON BLANC

place name: RHONE (red)

grape name: GRENACHE, SYRAH, MOUVEDRE

place name: RHONE (white)

grape name: VOIGNIER, MARSANNE, ROUSANNE

place name: CHAMPAGNE

grape name: CHARDONNAY, PINOT NOIR

place name: BEAUJOULAIS

grape name: GAMAY

top four wine regions of the world

1. France
2. Italy
3. Spain
4. USA

top 10 countries/regions for quality of wine (not in order)

- California
- France
- Italy
- Oregon
- Washington
- Spain
- Australia
- Portugal
- New Zealand
- Germany
- Argentina

how many confirmed wine varieties are there in the world?

1,368

What is the most planted grape variety in the world?

Cabernet Sauvignon

how long has wine been around?

at least 8 thousand years

The French Paradox

french people eat high fat diets but have lower cardiovascular risks, has been attributed to red wine

Red wine in particular contains...

high levels of antioxidants (such as resveratrol) from the grape skins which slows aging and blocks cancer cells

Caucasus Mountain range

Earliest evidence of wine making is found (around 7000 BC)
*wine was invented before written language

Amphora

primary method used to ship wine in ancient israel and greece

Red wine process vs white wine process

Red: ferment then press
White: Press then ferment

Riddling

When the bottles are placed on racks called pupitres -- allows sediment to settle by the cork -- used for making sparkling wines

Fortified wine

a wine to which a distilled spirit, usually brandy, is added (sherry)

Phylloxera

insect that attacks grape roots -- now we have french fruits on American roots because they

Worlds largest wine producer

France, then Italy
Spain has the most Vineyards

AOC

Appellation D'Origine Controlee
these rules closely define which grape varieties and winemaking practices are approved for classification
1935

Terroir

links the style of the wines to the specific locations where the grapes are grown

Vin De France (same as old Vin de Table)

Most basic quality tier for French wines (accounts for about 11% of wine)
does not provide any other information

Why are some wines are "downgraded" to Vin de France?

They either produced outside of officially delimited AOC and VDP zones, or because they are made with unsanctioned grape varieties or blends

Indication Geographique Protegee (IGP) (same as old Vin de Pays)

Middle tier of French wine
label includes -- where produced and the producers name (33% of wines)

Vin Delimite de Qualite Superieure

joked as being the "waiting room" for the well-known and higher esteemed AOC designation
(9% of French wine)

Appellation d'Origine Protegee (AOP) (Replaces AOC)

AOP/AOC
53.4% of wine in france
about 450 different AOCs in France

AOC/P restrictions

- specific location where grapes are grown and wine is made
- type of grape
- specific production methods
-minimum levels of alcohol
-maximum levels of yields
-minimum planting densities
-rules for harvesting and vinification techniques
-restrictions on l

Burgundy Wine Classifications

Grand Cru (top tier)
Premier Cru (second tier)
Village Wines (third tier)
Regional Wines (fourth tier)

Chablis Wine Classifications

Grand Cru
Premier Cru
Village Chablis
Petit Chablis

Beaujolais Wine Classifications

Beaujolais AOC/AOP
Beaujolais Villages
Beaujolais Cru

Wines of Bordeaux

Mostly reds
number the quality levels: First growths, second growths, third etc. instead of Grand Cru

Noble Rot

Botrytis
dries the grapes allowing for very high sugar levels
Sauternes (famous sweet wines)

Six red grapes allowed in Bordeaux

Cabernet Sauvignon
Merlot
Cabernet Franc
Carmenere
Petite Verdot
Malbec

Five First Growths of Bordaux:
(quality levels)

Chateau Lafite-Rothschild
Chateau Margeaux
Chateau Latour
Chateau Haute-Brion
Chateau Mouton-Rothschild

Right Bank Bordeaux Grapes

Merlot and Cabernet Franc

Left Bank Bordeaux Grapes

Cabernet Sauvignon and Cabernet Franc

Left bank Bordeaux Sub-Regions

Entre-Deux-Mers (between two waters)

Brix

used to measure the sugar percentage in grapes or juice
24 Brix is 24% sweetness
Brix tells us how ripe and sweet the grapes were when they were picked

Cote d'Or

limestone escarpment in Burgundy
"golden slope"Sub
Broken up into two sections: Cote de Beaune and Cote de Nuits

Cote de Nuits

almost exclusively produces Red wines (Burgundy) made from Pinot Noir
South

Cote de Beaune

Produces a mix of red and white wines in Burgundy (pinot noir and chardonnay grapes)
North

Subdivisions of Burgundy

Cote de Nuits
Cote de Beaune
Cote Chalonnaise
Maconnais
Beaujolais
Chablis

Chablis

where white wines are produced on chalky soil (burgundy)
Made 100% from the Chardonnay Grape
cool climate produces wines with high acidity and less fruit than chardonnay from warmer regions

Beaujolais

Southern Burgundy -- mostly red wines (GAMAY) are made and consumed young
Beaujolais Nouveau (party)
Largest region of Burgundy
known for their use of carbon maceration

Quality Classifications for Burgundy

Grand Crus
Premier Crus
Village Appellations
Regional Appellations

Pinot Noir

(Pinot Nero) hard to grow black wine grape with green flesh that originated around Burgundy

Pinot Gris

(Pinot Grigio) Pink skinned wine grape that produces white and rose colored wines

Pinot Blanc

(Pinot Blanco) A white grape that often is confused with Chardonnay

Pinot Meunier

A black skinned grape that ripens a but earlier than Pinot noir and is mostly used in Champagne

Pinot Teinturier

Black skinned grape with red flesh

Pinot Noir Precoce

Mutation of Pinot Noir that ripens two weeks earlier than regular Pinot Noir

Cote Chalonnaise

south of the Cote d'Or in Burgundy
Grow Pinot Noir and Chardonnay

Maconnais

Southern Burgundy
good white wines with chardonnay grape (light and dry)
mostly produce white wines, but Pinot Noir and Gamay are the regions reds

Gamay

Grape produced red wine
thin skin grape that is low in tannins
The Gamay grape, GAMAY NOIR, is a cross between Pinot Noir and the ancient white Gouais
High in acidity, which is softened with CARBONIC MASCERATION
doesn't need to age long

Beaujolais Nouveau

One month old wine sold in November (third Thursday) to launch the new vintage
Village Beaujolais are AOP wines of stronger character

Rhone grapes

Reds: Grenache, Syrah, Mouvedre
Whites: Roussanne, Marsanne, and Viognier
Everything grown here is Grand Cru unless they don't follow guidelines

Chateaneuf du Pape AOC

Pinkish rocky soil that goes down about 15 feet in some places due to the Rhone river flooding a long time ago
Southern Rhone
Age wines in French oak barrels
in 1308 Pope Clement V relocated the papacy to the city of Avignon -- and they loved wine. Later,

Loire Valley

Valley of Kings
Primarily white wines
Chaptalization is allowed bc these wines tend to be acidic
Sauvignon Blanc, Chenin Blanc, Cabernet Franc, Melon de Bourgogne

Upper Loire

Known for Sauvignon Blanc, produces wines such as Sancerre AOC

Touraine (Loire Valley)

cold climate white wines from Chenin Blanc and red wines from Cabernet Franc

Pays Nantais (Loire Valley)

- Great oyster wines made from Muscadet
Melon de Bourgogne

Anjou-Saumur (loire valley)

One of the 4 sub-regions of the Loire Valley located in the center-west of the valley.
Produces wines similar to Touraine

Provence

Southern France
Warmest wine region in France
produces mainly Rose and red wines

Bandol

Black Wine of France
Mostly Mourvedre, with Grenache and Cinsault
Bold n fruity
Provence

Clay soils produce

rich structured wines

Sand soils produce

aromatic / light colored wines

Silt soils produce

Herbaceous wines

Loam soils produce

over-productive vines resulting in thinner wines

Red wine process

Grow Grapes
Harvest
Crush
Ferment
Press
Barrel Age
Bottle
Drink -best later

White Wine Process

Grow Grapes
Harvest
Crush
Press
Ferment in Barrel
Barrel Age
Bottle
Drink-best sooner

Whole cluster fermentation

removing stems and leaving mostly WHOLE berries to ferment. Leads to a longer, slower fermentation and less extraction of bitter substances from the grapes
(pinot noir)
Its more common to remove stems and split the berries -- most reds are made this way

Bleeding

Juice removal
removing a portion (up to 20%) of juice from freshly crushed grapes in order to increase the ratio of skins and seeds to juice in the remaining must
increases flavor intensity, color and tannins

Rose wines
Blending Method

When a little bit of red wine is added to a vat of white wine to make rose.
Very uncommon -- happens more in sparkling wine regions

Rose Wines
Maceration Method

When red wine grapes are left to rest, or macerate, in the juice for a period of time and afterwords the entire batch of juice is finished into rose wine.
most common method

Prefermentation

Maceration, or cold soaking
Grapes are crushed into a sealable container, then chilled and left alone for up to three days before inoculation with yeast
deepens color, produces richer wine

Open Fermentation

slower and risk of infection increases (more contact with Oxygen)
only practical for small amounts
allow for gentle cap management (punching down the cap)
not suitable for extended maceration

Closed Fermentation

Fermentation under closed, anaerobic conditions to minimize risk of contamination and oxidation.
hold large volumes of grapes
make cap management difficult
sometimes gets too hot -- needs to be refrigerated

yeast fermentation

Wineries add dry Saccharomyces cerevisiae ver ellipsoideus
(adding more yeast, more control of flavors)

Proofing Yeast

Wine maker waits 20-30 minutes for the mix of grape juice and yeast to start bubbling and then adds it to the fermentation

Cap Management

reincorporating solids that such as skins and seeds back into the wine when they flow to the top -- maximize color and flavor and to keep the cap from getting too hot

Secondary Fermentations

Malolactic bacteria convert malic acid into lactic acid
converts and appley tasting wine (tart) into a buttery tasting wine (smooth)

Lees

Yeast sediment in the bottom of the fermentation or aging tank. You can filter them out, or not.

Barrel Aging

wine gains tannins and flavor from wood, may cause color change
Adds flavors: vanilla, spicy, smoky (if toasted)
Usually oak, but sometimes chestnut
Expensive (french oak barrles are upwards of $600 and only last for a year)

Racking

process of moving wine from an old barrel to a new barrel, leaving the sediment behind
softens and clarifies the wine
may move the wine from a "neutral barrel" to a "finishing-oak" barrel

Fining

adding agents to a wine in order to selectively remove certain substances in it.
usually conducted to either clarify the wine or reduce its astringency.
White wines usually require fining with varying amounts of bentonite in order to achieve stability wit

Final Clarification

Ohio law requires filtration, but they don't specify the pore size of the filter, so you can use open mesh.
Filtration removes flavor, you want as little as necessary
not all wines are filtered

Cork Production

Mostly from Portugal (~50%), then Spain

Winery price

$12/bottle (typical)

Wholesale markup for a $12 bottle

$24 100% markup from winery price

Retail markup for a $12 bottle

$36 (50% markup on top of wholesale)

Restaurant markup for a $12 bottle

$72 (triple wholesale)

Acidity

the acidity level tells us the concentration of acids present in wine. Typically wines range between 4 and 8
2g/l is very low and will make the wine taste flat
10g/l is high and very sour

pH

pH levels tell us how intense the acids taste. Lower the pH number, the more intense the acids present in the wine will taste.
Lower the pH, higher the acidity -- higher the pH, lower the acidity

ABV

Alcohol by volume -- the percentage of alcohol in wine
most wines range from 10-15%

Aging/Maturation

This tells us the methodology the winemakers use to age the wines, including wether wines are aged in oak and for how long. Aging wine is more common for red wines than white wines.

Malolactic Fermentation

yes or no
tells us whether or not the winemaker chose to convert a tart-tasting wine into a smoother or creamier tasting wine.
Nearly all red wines undergo MLF, much less so for white wines. A white wine that commonly undergoes MLF is Chardonnay.

RS

Residual Sugar
measure of sweetness in the wine.
Wines with less than 10g/l are considered dry. Many dry wines have none at all.

pH vs Acidity in wine

intensity vs amount
pH is an intensity mesure (how intense the acids taste), while Acidity measures the quantity/concentration

Harvest date

most important decision a winemaker has to make
picking earlier will produce wines with higher acidity, higher alcohol (sweetness) and more subdued tannins.
Every vintage is different, and it usually depends on the weather

Watering back

adding water to wine to reduce the alcohol concentration in the completed wine

how many pounds of grapes to fill up a barrel

600-700 lbs

how many cases will a barrel of wine yeild

23 cases (12 bottles per case)

Chaptalization

Adding sugar to grape juice before fermentation to increase the alcohol content of the finished wine

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Sulfites

used to sanitize all the surfaces that would come in contact with the grapes or their juices
using sulfates in the winery means you can't call your wine organic (only in the US)
sulfite occurs in grapes naturally, up to 50 PPM, so its impossible to have a

Biodynamic vs Organic

Organic is a more sustainable form of agriculture (limiting use of fertilizers and pesticides, using integrated pest management)
Biodynamics are more religion than science -- these farming practices view the farm or vineyard as one solid organism (no yeas

Fermination

starts the moment the grapes are crushed, wild yeasts colonize the grapes as they grow
if you freeze the grapes this process stops (temporarily) and will restart when thawed
Germany produces the best yeasts

Types of Yeasts

Assmannshausen
Cote des Blancs
Epernay
Flor Sherry
Montrachet

Assmannshausen Yeast

german yeast strain -- best suited for red wines
(intensifies the color, adds spicy aroma)

Cote des Blancs Yeast

Slow fermenting, low foaming yeast tolerant of low temps. Tends to bring out floral and fruity flavors
won't push alcohol production over 13% in a cool fermentation

Epernay yeast

Champagne yeast -- isolated use in Champagne, France
ferments slowly and tolerant of cold temps

Flor Sherry Yeast

develops "flor" aerobically, but also useful for anaerobic fermentations of Port, Madeira, or other sweet styles

Montrachet yeast

the most popular yeast, available for red and white wine fermentations (montrachet red and montrachet white)
doesn't work well with high sugar levels

Brettanomyces (Brett)

a yeast that can cause undesirable aromas and smells in wines
The most likely cause of a wine that has an unpleasant aroma of Band-Aids, as well as a "sweaty" or "horsy" odor
happens if wild yeast is present or if you're not cleanly
used in some beers --

Vineyard microbiome

Collection of microorganisms that inhabit the vineyard -- responsible for some of the "terroir" associated with that place
a wetter or dryer year might favor the growth of some stinky wild yeasts (Brett) at the expense of more desirable yeasts

WINE FUNK

a variety of winemaking flaws that produce some funky flavors
-Brettanomyces: happens if wild yeast is present or if you're not cleanly (smells like bandaids, sweaty leather saddles)
- Reduction: happens if you keep the oxygen out of the fermentation proc

Reduction

happens if you keep the oxygen out of the fermentation process (smells like rotten egg, onion, cooked cabbage, mushroom, burnt rubber)

Volatile Acidity

will happen if your fermentation is too long or too cool (smells like nail polish remover, vinegar)

Acetaldehyde

happens if there is too much oxygen (smells like sherry)

Hot fermentation vs Cool fermentation

Warmer fermentations are usually used for red wines to produce increased color and tannin
Cooler fermentations are usually on white and rose wines -- this type of fermentation helps preserve delicate aromas in white wines

Battonage

Stirring the lees to get more flavors from the yeast cells

Pigeage

punching down the cap

Cap management

Too much punching down (pigeage) will shear the skins, and release more tannin

Cold Stabilization

reduce tartrate crystals (wine crystals) by reducing temperature, causing these crystals to stick to the side of the holding vessel to be left behind

Secondary Fermentations (malolactic)

balance and softens wines -- introduces more vanilla and buttery notes

Oak aging

smoother, rounder and more vanilla notes in the wine
18 months for reds and 9 months for whites
"reserve" wines go an additional year

Steel aging

zesty, juicer and more refreshing

Assemblage

Blending -- most wines are blends

Cork Taint

Undesirable aromas and flavors in wine often associated with wet cardboard or moldy basements -- cork stopper is usually the main cause

Alternative wine closure options

artificial corks
screw caps
glass stoppers
crown caps

Wine additives

sulfites
lactic acid/bacteria
isinglass (fish bladder)
Sugar
Tartaric Acid
Watering back
Flash Pasteurization
Copper Sulfate
Polyphenol Management

Wine Legs

High alcohol wines collect more droplets on the sides of the glass than low alcohol wines
sweet wines also collect more legs

How to produce sweet wines

Late harvest
Noble Rot
Dried Grape
Ice Wine
Early Fortification

Port

Strong sweet wines from the Douro Valley, Portugal
Fortified mid-fermentation with distilled spirits
red blend

Madeira

Fortified wine similar in flavor to sherry
nutty taste and ranging from dry to fully sweet
Made with white and red grapes

Sherry

wine that is fortified with spirits AFTER fermentation is complete
For sweet sherries, sugar is added later

Marsala

Wine from italy (Marsala in Sicily)
fortified wine using brandy
White grape varietals (only using indigenous Sicilian grapes)

Vins Doux Naturels

Lightly fortified wines from southern France

Vermouth

Fortified wine flavored with herbs and spices
originated in ancient rome using wormwood

Names of sparkling wines

Champagne
Cremant
Cava
Prosecco
Sekt
Asti
Metodo Classico
Lambrusco
Mousseaux

Four ways to make sparkling wine

Champagne method
Charmat Method
Transfer Method
Ancestral Method

Champagne Method for sparkling wine production

-Cuvee (blend of fermented base wines)
-Tirage (bottled and blended with yeast n sugar for second ferment)
-Aging (age on the lees)
-Riddling/disgorging (removing the dead yeast in frozen bath)
-Dosage (adding residual sugar back into the bottle)

Charmat Method for sparkling wine production

Tank method
-wine completes second fermentation in a pressure resistant tank
-wines are then filtered to remove sediment in a pressure resistant filter
-dosage (receiving a mix of sugar/must prior to bottling)

Transfer Method for sparkling wine production

-Cuvee (blend of fermented base wines)
-Tirage (bottled and blended with yeast n sugar for second ferment)
-Aging (age on the lees)
-tank transfer and filtering
-dosage

Ancestral Method for sparkling wine production

-first fermentation
-filtration and pause (chilled to freeze)
-bottle fermentation
-riddling/disgorging

Sweetness levels for Champagne

Brut Nature -- Bone Dry (no added sweetness)
Extra Brut
Brut
Extra Dry
Dry
Demi-Sec
Doux -- Sweet dessert style champagne

Vigneron (grower) Champagne

sparkling wine crafted by grape growers and their families that reflects their distinct vineyard and style (5% of french Champagne)

Maison Champagne

Champagne houses buy grapes from all over the region
Vintages produce a consistent taste every year
(87% of french champagne)

Cooperatives

Growers who don't have wine making equipment can opt for a village co-op
growers supply their grapes and the chief co-op wine maker makes the final cuvees. The champagnes can be labeled for the growers individually or the co-op brand.

Sweet Wines

Late harvest
Ice wine
Port
Riesling
Passito
Sauterne
Moscato

Sauternes

Botrytized wines -- noble rot
Bordeaux white wine
Body - Full
Acidity - High
Flavor - Stone fruit/honey

what are the only two things you can add to wine?

sugar and acid

what is the most planted grape in the world?

Cabernet Sauvignon
Cross between cab franc and sauvignon blanc (both from bordeaux)

How are wine bottles labeled in Europe?

name of the town is on the bottle not the grape

acidic wines

activate salivation glands

tannic wines

make you thirsty

AOC system categories

vin de table -- worst
vin de pays
vin delmite de Qualite Superieure
Appellations D'Origine Controllee -- best
OLD SYSTEM

INAO

Institut National des Appellations d'Origine
-monitors both viticultural and vinicultural practices in AOC regions

12 INAO regions

Alsace/Eastern France
Champagne
Southwest France
Loire Valley
Burgundy
Languedoc - Roussillon
Rhone Valley/Provence Corsica
Vins Doux Naturels (naturally sweet foritified wines)
Eaux-de-vie de cidre

Burgundy District wine Classifications/Quality Levels

Grand
Premier
Village
Bourgogne/Bourgogne Blanc

Left Bank Bordeaux Wines

Blends
Most expensive cabs in the world
"steak wines"
*
exception, noble rot (Sauternes) occur on southern left bank
*

Right Bank Bordeaux Wines

Blends
Merlot wines
"burger wines

Middle of Rivers Bordeaux Wines

Entre Deux Mars
Dry Whites
"chicken n fish

The Five First Growths left bank Bordeaux

Chateau Haut Brion
Chateau Latour
Chateau Margaux
Chateau Lafite
Chateau Mouton Rothschild

Bordeaux Red Grapes

Cabernet Sauvignon
Merlot
Cabernet Franc
Carmenere
Petite Verdot
Malbac

Five Regions of Burgundy

Chablis (white)
Cote de Nuits $$$ burgundys
Cote de Beaune $$$ chardonnays
Cote Chalonnaise
Maconnais
Beaujoulais (red)
Cote de Nuits/Cote de Beaune are known as Code d'or (gold coast)
ancient seabed

Red Burgundy

Pinot Noir

White Burgundy

Chardonnay

Burgundy Grapes

Pinot Noir
Pinot Gris
Pinot Blanc
Pinot Meunier
Pinot Teinturier
Pinot Noir Precoce
Chardonnay

Rhone Grapes

Grenache
Syrah
Mauvedre

Loire Valley West Grapes

...

Loire Valley Middle Grapes

...

Loire Valley East Grapes

Sauvignon Blanc

Provance Grapes

Grenache
Syrah
Mauvedre

MOG

material other than grapes

MUST

crushed grapes

Bleeding

Juice removal

Three advantages of closed fermentation

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Three advantages of open fermentation

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