Lab Animal Management Practical Exam

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stratified squamous epithelium

What type of tissue is this?

Flattened, layered tissue cells that form the outer layer of the body as well as the lining for the alimentary canal
One layer is in contact with the basement membrane while the other layers adhere to each other to maintain structural integrity

What is the function of stratified squamous epithelium cells?

Adipose tissue

What tissue is this?

AKA fat
Loose connective tissue composed of adipocytes with the main purpose of storing energy in the form of fat as well as insulate and cushion the body

What is the function of adipose tissue?

Human Blood Cells

What tissue is this?

AKA red blood cells
Transports oxygen from lungs to the body and CO2 as a waste product via hemoglobin

What is the function of erythrocytes?

Striated muscle

What type of tissue is this?

Two types: skeletal and cardiac
These muscles contract in order to support respiration, locomotion, and posture
Voluntary Movements (not cardiac)

What is striated muscle? What is its purpose?

Non-striated muscle

What tissue is this?

AKA smooth muscle
Used for peristalsis in the digestive tract, blood vessels and other organ systems
Involuntary movements

What is the purpose of non-striated muscle?

Cardiac Muscle

What types of tissue is this?

These are intercalated disks used for anchoring structures and which contain gap junctions

What are the bands visible in the histology that segment cardiac muscles?

These muscles keep the heart pumping to deliver blood to the lungs and throughout the body
Contractions are involuntary

What is the purpose of cardiac muscle?

Nerve Cells

What does this histology slide show?

They conduct signals throughout the body to communicate information from the CNS to the PNS and from sensory receptors to the CNS

What is the purpose of nerve cells?

Skin

What tissue is this?

Stratum corneum
Stratum lucidum
Stratum granulosum
Stratum spinosum
Stratum basale

What are the layers of the skin in order from the surface down?

It creates a protective barrier to prevent pathogens and unwanted microbes from entering the body and prevents chemicals, radiation, and physical impacts from injuring more vital organs

What is the purpose of the skin?

Small intestine

What tissue is this?

These are villi and help the SI absorb more nutrients from food by increasing surface area

What are the finger-like projections seen in a small intestine histology slide?

It digests and absorbs food

What is the function of the SI?

Kidney

What tissue is this?

Liver

What tissue is this?

A central vein

What is the large gap in the center of the liver histology?

Pancreas

What tissue is this?

Two Main functions:
Exocrine- helps in digestion
Endocrine- regulates blood sugar

What is the function of the pancreas?

Adrenal Gland

What tissue is this?

Z. Glomerulosa
Z. Fasciculata
Z. Reticularis
Adrenal Medulla

What are the layers of the adrenal gland histology?

Ovary

What tissue is this?

Testes

What tissue is this?

Seminiferous tubules
Interstitial Cells

What is the large round structure in this histology? What are the cells surrounding them?

Spermatazoa

What is shown in this histology?

By the tail or scruff with your fingers
Or by the scruff with specialized forceps

How can you put up a mouse?

Hold the scruff between your thumb and forefinger with the body of the mouse in your palm and the rest of your fingers holding its body in place on its side

How should you restrain a mouse?

Mice are much smaller than rats and have larger ears and a longer tail with respect to its body than a rat
Rats also have much larger feet when compared to body size than mice do

How can you differentiate between a mouse and a rat?

Relatively easy to handle, may bite

What is the temperament of a mouse?

Only pick up by the base of the tail for very short distances otherwise the tail could come out of the tail skin and cause physical damage as well as severe stress and pain to the animal

How can you pick up a rat? Why are there restrictions on this method?

This method is used to restrain a rat by holding onto the back of the rat with your thumb under one armpit and the rats other arm between your middle and forefinger

What is the T-Rex method?

There is a plastic tube that the rat can go in head first with its nose poking out of the end, its front legs on the bottom facing forward, and its tail through a hole in the disk that covers the end opening
You can also use plastic cones that the rat goe

What restraining devices can be used with rats?

Similarly to a mouse or if not much restraint is needed, you can hold them in your palm while using the other hand as a barricade to prevent it from falling

How should you restrain a hamster?

With two hands
One under its butt, the other either under its belly or holding its back with fingers in its armpits

How should you restrain a guinea pig?

They can break their backs easily so more structured support is needed to prevent this

What is special about how you handle rabbits?

Hold the scruff with one hand and pick up the butt with the other, then hold its body along your torso with one hand along its entire body, still supporting its butt
It is also helpful to keep the rabbit's face under your arm, the darkness helps to calm t

How should you restrain a rabbit?

Restraining device for rabbits

What is this?

Hold the scruff with one hand and support the bottom with the other. The cat should face away from you to prevent injury
You can also hold the scruff and hold the cats body against yours with your arm under the cats belly while holding the front legs

How should one restrain a cat?

Put your arms around the front and back legs of the dog and lift up

How should you pick up a dog?

Put one arm under the dogs neck and hold their head against your chest while your other arm reaches over their back to hold onto the front leg
Or hold the dogs front legs in one hand and back legs in the other and hold them apart from each other

How should you restrain a dog?

Smaller less dangerous primates can be held similarly to a guinea pig with one hand supporting it's bottom and another reaching around it's back with the thumb and forefinger in its armpit
Larger primates should be walked with a collar attached to a pole

How should one restrain non-human primates?

PPE should always be worn
Mask, gloves, goggles, and face shield are necessary

What special considerations are needed for restraining a primate?

There is a hook type contraption that can be used to grab the legs to make catching them easier

How should you grab a chicken?

Hold the body against your torso with the wings flat with one arm while the other hand holds the legs together

How should you restrain a chicken?

Some animals like sheep are herd animals and it causes them more stress if they are unable to see their herd. because of this, when restraining an animal like a sheep, you should you a fence it can see through, this will make procedures easier and cause t

What is special about restraining a sheep?

When on their backs, the gases produced by the rumen during fermentation cannot be expelled. The gas then builds up and puts pressure on their lungs until they can no longer breath

What position can sheep not be in and why not?

Pigs walk over a sling with 4 holes in it, once their feet are correctly positioned in the holes, the sling moves up so the pig is then held in the air. this prevents injury and helps to keep the pigs calm

How should pigs be restrained?

Cattle have restraining devices. they are large 3 sided chutes that have a closing gate behind them. they are designed to be just wide enough for the animal to be comfortably in the chute but small enough that they can't move much. The cattle's head pokes

How are cattle restrained?

Horses have a similar restraining device to cattle. They also walk into a long chute, but this is often 2 sided with a rope or removable barrier in the front and does not have the bars that hold the neck into place

How are horses restrained?

Cattle Restraint

What is this?

Horse restraint

What is this?

Mouse restraint

What is this?

Autoclave

What is this?

It uses high heat and pressure to sterilize equipment

What is the function of the autoclave?

250 degrees

What is the minimum temperature that the autoclave should reach?

Cage Washers

What is this?

The cage washer typically has a dirty side (on the side of the facility/washing room that is designated the dirty side) and a clean side

What are the sides of a cage washer?

180 degrees

What temperature should a cage washer run at?

Mice cages have smaller bars and do not have clips since they are smaller (can more easily escape with larger spaces between bars)
Rat cages have larger spaces between bars and have clips (they can more easily push off the top of the cage if they do not h

What is the difference between mice and rat cages?

Cubicles are helpful so you can keep groups of research animals at different environmental conditions without using an entire room.

What is a cubicle?

Ear tag or ear punch

What are two methods of animal identification?

1. establish an animal-technician relationship
2. begin with a young animal if possible
3. Handle daily
4. establish a routine
5. restrain the animal in a firm but secure manner
6. handle the animal directly by avoiding using metal forceps or other tools

What 6 general considerations should be given when attempting to handle an animal?

Notches and holes move around the ears in top, middle, bottom, or center positions
There can be two notches
Left ear starts at 10 and reaches 200 (10,20,30,40,50,60,70,80,90,200)
Right ear starts at 1 and reaches 100

How are ears notched/punched?

399

What is the highest number that can be coded for with ear notching/punching?

procedure extent and duration, age, species/strain, and physiological status

What factors help decide the dosage of anesthetics for a surgery?

Stage 1- disorientation
Stage 2- irregular respiratory rate and loss of the righting reflex (reflex to try to right itself)
Stage 3- Surgical stage
Stage 4- complete paralysis of intercostal muscles and diaphragm leading to respiratory arrest and ultimate

What are the stages of anesthetization?

Plane 1- Loss of palpebral and swallowing reflexes
Plane 2- Corneal and laryngeal reflexes lost
Plane 3- Analgesia and amnesia are complete, paralysis of intercostal muscles
Plane 4- Overdose leading to stage 4

What are the 4 planes of stage 3?

Bell jar
induction chamber
nose cone/face mask

What are the choices for inhalation of anesthetics?

Removal of the testes and the associated tissues

What is castration?

Stops most if not all androgen production and all sperm production

What are the effects of castration?

Allows the study of androgen effects on androgen sensitive tissues and can study male reproductive behaviors
Also prevents breeding

What is the purpose of castration?

10ml Ketamine
5ml Xylazine
1.5ml Acepromazine
1.85ml distilled water

What makes up the injectable anesthetic rat cocktail?

Sedation, anesthesia, immobilization
Does NOT proved adequate analgesic properties on its own

What is the role of ketamine in the rat cocktail?

sedation, analgesia
results in medium plane of surgical anesthesia

What is the role of Xylazine in the rat cocktail?

It extends the time of the anesthesia

What is the role of the Acepromazine in the rat cocktail?

0.15ml/100g body weight

How much of the rat cocktail should be given to a rat pre-op?

5.4ml

If the rat weighs 360g, how much cocktail should be administered?

1-2 cm

How large should the incision in the scrotum be in the castration of a rat?

Gently pull out the testis and surrounding tissues until a considerable portion of the spermatic cord is exposed. Tie a double ligand around the spermatic cord and the vas deferens. On the side of the testes, you should then cut the spermatic cord and vas

What should you do after cutting the incision into the scrotum?

Inject a 0.05ml/100g maintenance dose of the rat cocktail

What should you do if the anesthesia becomes too shallow?

Prostate regresses
Hormonal regeneration of the prostate begins with reintroduction

What happens to the prostate after castration? What happens to it if testosterone is reintroduced?

When you withdrawl blood for the purpose of retrieving plasma

When is it necessary to add an anticoagulant to a blood sample?

When your goal is to collect serum

When is it unnecessary to add an anticoagulant?

Centrifuge the blood sample until a clot forms, the rest of the sample that is not clotted is the sample

How do you obtain the serum?

centrifuge the sample at 2200-2500 RPMs until plasma and erythrocytes separate

How do you collect plasma?

herapin, sodium citrate, ethylenediamine tetraacetic (EDTA)

What are common anticoagulants used in research?

A liquid form of herapin, EDTA, and sodium citrate is added to the syringe before blood is drawn so it immediately prevents clotting

How is an anticoagulant added to a blood sample?

20-29 gauge needles

What size range of needles is favorable for mice and rats?

10%

What percent of a rat or mouse's blood can safely be taken for a sample?

193-200 microliters
1.9-2 mililiters

For the average mouse, what volume of blood is able to be safely withdrawn? For the average rat?

hypovolemic shock

What can removing more than 15% of the blood volume result in?

fluid replacements, warmed and given subcu

What will allow you to remove up to 15% of the animal's blood volume?

7.5%
10%

If blood was to be taken once a week, what is the max percent blood volume allowed to be taken? If it's taken every other week?

Retro orbital bleed

You hold the skin below the ear and above the jaw away from the eye. You insert a small tube into the corner of the eye closest to the nose and turn the tube to cut through connective tissue. The blood enters the tube through capillary action. What method

Tail bleed

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