anatomy digestive system


a condition caused by a lack of vitamin C (a disease of malnutrition); collagen cannot be replaced, leading to tissue breakdown; adult patients may suffer from fatigue, bleeding gums, swelling, slow-healing wounds, and bruising

mechanical and chemical breakdown of food, absorption of nutrients, elimination of wastes

What are the functions of the digestive system?

alimentary, organs

The digestive system consists of the ________________ canal and accessory __________.


layer of the alimentary canal that protects tissues and carries absorption


layer of the alimentary canal that has glands, blood vessels, and nerves

muscular layer

layer of the alimentary canal that is made up of smooth muscle; pushes food


layer of the alimentary canal that lubricates surfaces; covers innermost structures


In the small intestine, _______ increase surface area for absorption of nutrients.

mixing, propelling

What two types of movements are involved in the digestive system?


Food is mixed with digestive ________.


the process of wave-like muscle contractions of the alimentary tract that pushes food down the tube


begins digestion by chewing and mixing with saliva


moves food; connects to the floor of the mouth via frenulum; has papillae


membrane securing the tongue to the floor of the mouth


rough, bumpy elevations on dorsal surface of tongue


forms the roof of the oral cavity (hard and soft)


soft tissue hanging from the middle of the soft palate at the back of the mouth

palatine tonsils

part of the immune system; located on the left and right sides of the throat


an inflammation of the tonsils; will often, but not necessarily, cause a sore throat and fever

tonsil stones (tonsilloliths)

hard white formations that are located on or within the tonsils; causes by harboring of bacteria that hardens


front teeth


canine teeth; pointy




back teeth (1st, 2nd, 3rd)


hard, outermost layer of a tooth; hardest substance in the body


soft tissue within the center cavity of a tooth, containing nerves and blood vessels


visible part of the tooth covered by enamel


part of the tooth below the gum line


dense tissue forming the bulk of a tooth

root canal

a treatment to repair and save a badly damaged or infected tooth instead of removing it; canals inside the root are cleaned and a cap is put on top of the tooth


enzyme that breaks down starch into sugars


Mucus cells produce mucus for ________________ during swallowing.

parotid gland

salivary gland within the cheek, just anterior to the ear; largest of the salivary glands

submandibular gland

a salivary gland inside the lower jaw on either side that produces most of the nocturnal saliva

sublingual gland

smallest of major salivary glands; located under the tongue


throat; passageway for food to the esophagus and air to the larynx


a flap of cartilage that covers the windpipe while swallowing


voice box


a muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach; moves food to the stomach


The esophageal _________ is where the esophagus penetrates the diaphragm.

cardiac sphincter

opening from the esophagus to the stomach

longitudinal, circular, oblique

What are the three muscle layers of the stomach?

cardiac, fundic, body, pyloric

What are the four regions of the stomach?


upper portion of the stomach


first section of the small intestine


ridges on the wall of the stomach


prevents stomach from digesting itself


Small openings in the stomach lining called gastric pits contain ________.

gastric juices

What do glands secrete to breakdown food?


the most important digestive enzyme for breaking down food


mixture of enzymes and partially-digested food; paste after food has been broken down; released into the duodenum via the pyloric sphincter valve


secretes insulin which breaks down sugars; juice breaks down fat


Insulin and pancreatic juice empty into the ____________.


How many lobes does the liver have?

biliary system

consists of liver, gallbladder, and associated ducts; functions to create bile used in digestion


yellowish-green liquid that aids in digestion and the breakdown of fat

cystic duct

duct leading from the gallbladder to the common bile duct; carries bile

common bile duct

carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum

hepatic duct

drains bile from liver


The common bile duct empties into the _____________.


regulates blood glucose levels, breaks down lipids and fats, metabolizes proteins, stores vitamins, recycles red blood cells, removes toxins, secretes bile

absorption of nutrients

What is the main function of the small intestine?

duodenum, jejunum, ileum

What are the three parts of the small intestine?


the last and longest portion of the small intestine


middle portion of the small intestine


supports the coils of the small intestine, contains blood vessels to carry nutrients away

greater omentum (peritoneum)

a "curtain-like" membrane that covers the intestines, stores fat, and lays like a drape

cecum, colon, rectum, anus

What are the four parts of the large intestine?


first part of the large intestine; has an attached appendix


a small, fingerlike extension of the cecum; contains a mass of white blood cells that contribute to immunity.

ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid

What are the four sections of the colon?


stores waste before it is expelled from the body


muscular sphincter which controls the exit of waste

intestinal flora

bacteria in the large intestine that aid in digestion

mucus, water

The large intestine secretes _________ and reabsorbs _________.

mass movement

the movement of a large mass down the body; defecation

water reabsorption

What is the main job of the large intestine?


a physician with dedicated training and unique experience in the management of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and liver

acid reflux

backflow of stomach acid into the esophagus; aka gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)


severe diarrhea; failure to reabsorb water in the large intestine leads to watery stool; dehydration can lead to death; caused by parasitic infection, bacterial infection, viruses, or food allergies or intolerances


a generic name used to describe vomiting and diarrhea


bacteria causes diarrhea and leads to massive loss of water that can be fatal; transmitted through unclean water sources and contaminated food

Hepatitis A

caused by eating food or water infected with a virus called HAV; causes swelling and inflammation in the liver; does not lead to chronic disease; has a vaccine

Hepatitis B

spread by contact with an infected person's blood, semen, or other bodily fluid; some people never develop symptoms, while others develop chronic symptoms that stay with them their whole life; has a vaccine


What organ is affected by Hepatitis?

Hepatitis C

caused by the virus HCV; spread through contact with an infected person's blood, semen, or bodily fluid; causes swelling of the liver and can cause liver damage that can lead to cancer; most develop a chronic infection


scarring of the liver

Crohns disease

chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract; causes crampy abdominal pain; fatigue, loss of appetite, pain with passing stool, bloody stool, persistent diarrhea, weight loss, constipation

IBS (irritable bowel syndrome)

an intestinal disorder caused when the muscles in the bowel contract too forcefully or too weakly, too slowly or too rapidly, at certain times

stomach ulcers

open sores or lesions found in the stomach or duodenal lining, causes burning upper abdominal pain, particularly between meals, early in the morning, or after drinking orange juice, coffee, or alcohol; treated with antibiotics to kill H. pylori bacteria


difficulty emptying the bowels; usually associated with hardened feces


swollen veins in anus and lower rectum; may result from straining during bowel movements or from the increased pressure during pregnancy

lactose intolerance

inability to digest lactose; drinking milk can cause upset stomach

celiac disease

disease caused by sensitivity to gluten; immune system responds to gluten by damaging villi


Without healthy villi, a person becomes ________________.


inflammation of the appendix


protrusion of intestines through abdominal muscles


made from cholesterol and other things found in the bile; found in gallbladder


lack of proper nutrition, caused by not having enough to eat, not eating enough of the right things, or being unable to use the food that one does eat


Vitamin D deficiency

essential nutrient

required for normal body functioning that cannot be synthesized by the body


BMI index of 30 or higher

gastric bypass, lap band

What are 2 extreme treatments for obesity?


difficulty swallowing


when food or other objects enter the airway


a screening technique to detect colon cancer