Public Health Unit 1

What is public health


Which era of public health emerged from HIV/AIDS pandemic and emphasized personal responsibility

Health promotion 1980-2000

Why study public health


Reasons for chiropractors to study public health

-promote, protect, and restore health is what chiropractors do every day
-most courses prepare us for one on one interactions, and we work directly with the individual
-All health care providers overlap with public health*

Current public health care challenges


2 components of public health

1- Health issues (mental, physical)
2- Populations (at risk)

The full spectrum of public health includes what 3 things?


What is the Big "I" Integration?

The relationship between public health and the medical care system

Examples of how public health effects lives





Epidemiology - basic science of public health
This includes the study of epidemics (disease outbreaks).
Epidemiology aims to control the spread of infectious diseases.
It seeks the causes of chronic disease and ways to limit harmful exposures.

the study of epidemics is the study of

disease outbreaks

Morbidity vs Mortality

Morbidity: disease within a population
Mortality: deaths due to a disease divided total population


measures the rate of occurrence of new cases of a disease or condition. Incidence is the number of instances of a factor (disease, injury, health status, etc) during a given period (day, month, year, decade) in a specified population (age group, community, country, etc).

Biostatistics data includes

Quantitative - numbers, percents, raw data
Qualitative - data obtained from first-hand observation, interviews, questionnaires, focus groups, participant-observation, recordings made in natural settings, documents, and artifacts. The data are generally nonnumerical.
A risk ratio (RR), also called relative risk, compares the risk of a health event (disease, injury, risk factor, or death) among one group with the risk among another group. It does so by dividing the risk (incidence proportion, attack rate) in group 1 by the risk (incidence proportion, attack rate) in group 2.


refers to the proportion of persons who have a condition at or during a particular time period. Prevalence is the total number (new and existing) of instances of a factor (disease, injury, health status, etc) at a specific period (day, month, year) in a specified population (age group, community, country, etc)


The proportion of deaths from a certain disease compared to the total number of people diagnosed with the disease for a particular period. Deaths from disease X over All cases of disease X
Deaths/People with disease



Biomedical science research: Ideas for sources of data include


__________ is now the leading factor in affecting people's health.

-tobacco, diet, activity

How can you tell if a public health recommendation is worth while


IOM core public health functions



obtaining data that define the health of the population overall and specific groups within

Policy development

developing evidence-based recommendations and other analyses of options to guide implementation


oversight responsibility for ensuring key components of an effective health system

Johnsons County Department of Health and Environment


Community based participatory research


What is a measurable goal related to chiropractic care


Public health agencies partnering w/ health care


What was a huge switch in disease pattern from 1900 to 2000

-heart and cancer rates have slowly increased since the 1900s, while other infectious diseases have decreased

What disease has been completely eradicated?

Small pox

This person (blank) mapped this disease (blank) to show that the disease was spread through dirty water. London 1854

John Snow and Cholera

How has motor vehicle safety reduced mortality/ injury

Engineering efforts to make both: Vehicles safer, Highways safer
Success in changing personal behavior
-Use of safety belts
-Child safety seats
-Motorcycle helmets
-Decreased drinking and driving

In what ways are the rates of the top two killers changing over time?

-cancer has seen a steady incline over the past 100 years
-Heart disease is higher than it was in 1900, but is steadily decline from the 1960's

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

Examines environmental health issues and makes recommendations

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

Aims to reduce injuries and hazardous exposures in the workplace

Department of Homeland Security

Preparation and response to disasters and terrorism

Department of Agriculture & the FDA

Protects the nation's food supply

Department of Housing and Urban Development

Influences the built environment and its impacts on health

Department of Energy

Sets radiation safety standards for nuclear power plants and other sources of energy

Community-oriented primary care (COPC) model


The Six Sequential Steps of COPC


Americans spend at least ______ a year on lower back pain. It is the ________ leading cause of lost work time. And about _______ percent of Americans experience lower back pain.

-$50 billion
-Second leading

There are over ______ types of arthritis. It affects 1 in _____ adults.


Most common cause of disability


Strengths/Challenges of Healthy People 2020

-data driven
-science/evidence based
-implementation plan
-technical assistance

Passive surveillance


Limitation to passive surveillance, advantage?


Active surveillance


Sentinel Surveillance


Sentinel Surveillance isn't useful for

rare conditions

Syndromic Surveillance


Rumor Surveillance

Unofficial sources of information such as
-social media

Characteristics of a good surveillance system