Chapter 4- grape growing + terms

What is grape growing

A highly skilled job that requires the grower to control the vines in order to produce a regular crop

What is a vine

A plant that can live up to 60 years and more, typically follows a similar pattern of growth

What season marks the start of the growing season for vines


What happens to vines at the end of summer

A vine grows new shoots, leaves, and flowers, transforming into a crop of ripe grapes

What happens to vines during autumn

The vine drops its leaves marking the end of the growing season

What happens to vines during the winter

Vines are dormant and do not grow

The species of vines in the United States and Europe

There are a number of different species that are native to either country, European species is the most popular one to make wines

What effect does each variety of vines have on wine making

Each variety has different characteristics although coming from the same species, it affects the appearance, taste in flavors of the wine

What things does a vine need to survive

Warmth, sunlight, carbon dioxide, water and nutrients

What role do roots have to vine growth

Lines are ready to the ground and has everything he needs from the soil where the roots are

How do Vines get heat and sunlight

The sun provides the heat and sunlight without heat a vine dies and that's why it's dormant in the winter

What is the role of sunlight for vine growth

Sunlight allows the vine to combine combine carbon dioxide which is taken in by its leaves and water to create photosynthesis

What does the vine do with the sugars created during photosynthesis

The vine uses the sugars to power its growth and ripen it's grapes

What is the role of nutrients in vine growth

Vines need small amounts of nutrients taken out by the roots to grow healthy shoots, leaves and roots

What factors to skins of the grapes have

The skin any area below it contain high levels of flavor, color, and tannins

What factors do seeds and stems of grapes have

These parts contain high levels of tanning that can make a wine taste very better if they are handed roughly

What factors of the pulp of a grape have + color

The pulp is made up of water and sugar that contains acids and flavors, has the same color inside for both white and black grapes

When does flowering occur for the vine

Spring is when the vine starts to grow and produce clusters of flowers which turn into bunch of grapes

How do flowers pollinate to become grapes

Vines rely on the wind to pollinate the flowers

What is the appearance of newly formed grapes

Small, hard, dark green and unpleasant to taste

When does the ripening process begin for grapes

By mid summer

How does the ripening process begin

With Verasion which is the point at which the grapes start to lose their dark green colors

How do the grapes taste at the beginning of the ripening process

These grapes have a very high level of acidity, hardly any sugar and have an unattractive herbaceous flavor

How does the characteristics of the grapes change after the ripening process

The grapes swell with water and become soft and flashy, acidity drops any amount of sugar in the great prices while decreasing the herbaceous flavors and developing signature flavors

White grape characteristics after ripening

Aromas in flavors change from green to stone fruit and tropical as the level of ripeness increases

Black grape characteristics after ripening

The aromas and flavors change from fresh fruit to cooked fruit, chemical compounds called the tannins develop in the skin of these grapes

Why is it important for a grape grower
to manage tannins at ripening

Because if the grapes are unripe they can taste bitter

What happens to grapes if they are left on the vine past normal harvest time

They may develop into a new stage of extra ripeness and develop exaggerated ripe aromas and accumulate a higher level of sugar

How are raisins developed

When the water content in a grape evaporates and the acid and sugars in it are concentrated forming dried fruit aromas

What type of grapes are commonly used in sweet wines

Raisins because they have such high levels of sugar when they're harvested


A fungus that can grow on ripe grapes causing noble rot

What does botrytis do

It makes tiny holes in the skin of the grape which causes the water to evaporate and concentrates acid, sugars, and flavors of the grape

Is botrytis bad

This fungus can easily destroy the grapes but the right conditions are needed for it to be beneficial

What are the ideal conditions for botrytis

A vineyard that is damp and misty in the morning to allow for growth and spread followed by a warm and dry afternoon to prevent it from destroying the grape

How is botrytis beneficial sometimes

grapes affected by this fungus or nearly always used to make sweet wines

How do grape growers harvest frozen grapes

Healthy grapes are left on the vine unpacked through autumn and into winter, when the temperature drops sufficiently the water in the grapes freezes and they are picked all frozen followed by pressed before they thaw

What happens when frozen grapes are pressed

The crystals along with the skins are separated from the small amount of remaining unfrozen liquid containing high concentrations of acids, sugars, flavors resulting in ice wine

What is climate

Climate is made up of heat, sunlight, and water availability or the amount of heat available during growing season

When are they growing seasons for the different hemispheres

Northern hemisphere runs from April to October while the southern hemisphere runs from October to April

What is considered cool, moderate, and warm for temperature of grape growing seasons

Cool is 62 or below, moderate is 62- 65, warm is 65-70

Why is temperature important in grape growing

Because it determines what grape varieties can grow successfully any wine region, and as well as flavor characteristics that they can develop


The most important factor that influences a wine regions climate

Where in latitude are most vineyards located

Between 30 to 50 north or south of the equator, it's rarely located outside of this range as it's likely to be too hot or cold

How does altitude affect the climate of a vineyard or region

Temperature drops with altitude, a higher altitude will always have a cooler climate than a vineyard located at the same latitude but with a lower altitude

How does the sea benefit warm climates for vineyards

Regions with warm climates that are located close to the sea benefits by being called by ocean currents coming up from the South Pole and vice versa for a warning influence

How do rivers help vineyards

They provide worms in a cooler regions and help to extend the growing season, they reflect sunlight which can help grapes to ripen in latitudes further from the equator and can protect against frost

How do clouds prevent growth in a vineyard

Clouds from above ground level can block sunlight to a vineyard causing grapes to take longer to ripen because lack of sunlight

How does fog affect vineyards

Fog forms at ground level and helps to cool down a vineyard, this is a very important moderating influence in coastal regions

How does mist affect vineyards

Mist is less dense than fog, forms near rivers during the mornings and is essential for development of botrytis

How do mountains affect vineyards

Mountains act as a barrier sheltering vineyards from clouds, rain and cold winds. This protection results in sunny summers, dry items and extended growing seasons

Effects of growth in vineyards that are further from the equator

Receive less heat and sunlight causing challenges to growing and ripening of grapes

Effects of growth in vineyards on a slope facing the equator

It will receive more heat and light, will produce ripe or grapes than vineyards planted on flat land or on slopes facing away from the equator

What does the soil provide the vine with

Water and nutrients which is needed to store enough to keep the vine healthy
affects the temperature and stones can help to absorb heat and provide extra help with ripening


Describes what happens in a region and it whether extremes can cause problems for grape growers

Weather extreme problems

The acid levels and grapes will be too high in the sugar levels will be too low, the vines will struggle to write in their grapes and to develop signature aromas

What is cool vintage

When the temperature in the growing season is colder in the sun is less bright. The vines may struggle to ripen and acid levels will be too high, sugar levels will be too low, and the grapes may struggle to develop their signature aromas

What is a hot vintage

When the temperature is hotter during the growing season, and the sun is not bright these grapes can develop on characteristic dried fruit aromas that can be damaged by sunburn. In extremes grapes will struggle to ripen and vines will need more water (hot

What happens to vines when short of water

The vines shut down to protect themselves and the grapes do not develop, and extremes of vines can die. Irrigation can help but water is not available in these conditions


Caused by prolonged periods of below average rainfall and is often made worse when there are above average temperatures, vines will be unable to ripen and can die

heavy rain

High levels of moisture can help fungal diseases to spread, if there is heavy rainfall close to harvest season the excessive moisture in the soil can cause grapes to have diluting flavors


Can cause significant damage, has a potential to destroy a vineyards entire annual crop of grapes


Risk in spring because it can damage and kill vines and growth, reduces number of of grapes that can be grown in that year


Necessary to ensure healthy and commercially viable crop of crapes that has been harvested every year, majority are trained on ellises and are pruned in the winter while they are dormant


Ensures that individual vines retain their required shape


Usually occurs when there's a lack of rainfall, there are a number of ways in which it can be done (flood in field to putting place systems that are able to water individual vines)


Fungi grow on vines and the leaves which can reduce the quality and quantity of grapes, small insects and other larger pests are a problem that spraying helps with

Nets and fences

Used to keep large animals and birds away from the grapes


Can be a problem in some vineyards and herbicides, can be used to keep under control


The measure of the number of grapes produced per unit of area, in some regions the max old allowed to set in law

What happens when the yields are too high or too low

If the yields are too high, the grapes could have diluted flavors and lower levels of sugar. If the yield is too low, the crop will be too small to be commercially viable

Harvesting and timing seasons

If they are harvested early in the ripening process they will have low levels of sugar, high levels of acid and are likely to have more herbaceous flavors. If they are harvest later in the ripening process, they have high levels of sugar, low levels of ac

Methods of harvesting

Can be harvested by hand or by machine, neither is better for wine quality. The choice depends on the style of wine being made all those machine harvesters cannot be used on steep slopes