CHP 26 URINARY SYSTEM--LECTURE PRACTICE QUESTIONS

Which organ in the urinary system produces urine?
ureter
kidney
urinary bladder
urethra

kidney

Which of the following is NOT a function of the urinary system?
adaptive immunity
regulation of blood volume
controlling calcium levels
conservation of nutrients

adaptive immunity

Which organ in the urinary system temporarily stores urine?
urinary bladder
kidney
urethra
ureter

urinary bladder

Which of the following is a dense fibrous layer that anchors the kidney to surrounding structures?
fibrous capsule
parietal peritoneum
renal fascia
perinephric fat capsule

renal fascia

In what part of the kidney are the renal pyramids located?
renal cortex
renal hilum
renal pelvis
renal medulla

renal medulla

Which of the following parts of the nephron has two limbs with thick segments and thin segments?
proximal convoluted tubule
nephron loop
distal convoluted tubule
collecting system

nephron loop

The glomerulus and the glomerular capsule form the __________.
cortical radiate arteries
renal papilla
renal corpuscle
vasa recta

renal corpuscle

In which of the basic processes involved in urine formation does blood pressure force water and solutes across the wall of the glomerular capillaries?
reabsorption
secretion
cotransport
filtration

filtration

Which of the following brings oxygenated blood into the kidney?
renal artery
left gastric artery
splenic artery
hepatic artery

renal artery

Which of the following is NOT a waste product normally found in urine?
ammonia
glucose
creatinine
urea

glucose

What is the term for the type of transport where two substrates cross the membrane while bound to a carrier protein, with at least one following its concentration gradient?
pinocytosis
cotransport
osmosis
facilitated diffusion

cotransport

Which of the following is the term for the blood pressure in the capillaries of the renal corpuscle?
capsular hydrostatic pressure
glomerular hydrostatic pressure
blood colloid osmotic pressure
countertransport

glomerular hydrostatic pressure

The amount of filtrate the kidneys produce each minute is the __________.
countercurrent multiplication
vasa recta filtration rate
glomerular filtration rate
filtration pressure

glomerular filtration rate

Which of the following statements about the regulation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is FALSE?
Elevation of blood pressure increases the GFR.
Renin is released when the GFR is low.
Constriction of the afferent arteriole increases the GFR.
Constr

Constriction of the afferent arteriole increases the GFR.

In which of the following areas of the nephron are most nutrients reabsorbed?
collecting duct
distal convoluted tubule
proximal convoluted tubule
nephron loop

proximal convoluted tubule

In which of the following areas of the nephron would countercurrent multiplication occur?
collecting duct
distal convoluted tubule
proximal convoluted tubule
nephron loop

nephron loop

In which of the following parts of the nephron does aldosterone control the reabsorption of sodium ions?
nephron loop and proximal convoluted tubule
proximal convoluted tubule and distal convoluted tubule
distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct
glome

distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct

What is the urinary structure that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder?
urethra
trigone
ureter
renal pelvis

ureter

The area in the urinary bladder that is bounded by the openings of the ureters and the entrance to the urethra is the __________.
rugae
detrusor
trigone
renal pelvis

trigone

Which of the following is NOT an effect of advanced age on the urinary system?
increase in the formation of kidney stones
increase in the GFR
reduced sensitivity to ADH
problems with urinary retention in males due to enlarged prostate

increase in the GFR

Which of the following is NOT a function of the urinary system?
introduction of plasma proteins into blood plasma
removal of organic waste products from body fluids
elimination of waste into the environment
homeostatic regulation of the volume and solute

introduction of plasma proteins into blood plasma

The openings of the urethra and the two ureters mark an area on the internal surface of the urinary bladder called the __________.
internal urethral sphincter
renal sinus
external urethral sphincter
trigone

trigone

What is the initial factor that determines whether urine will be produced?
activation
absorption
secretion
filtration

filtration

The region of the kidney containing the renal pyramids, renal columns, and interlobar arteries is called the __________.
renal cortex
renal medulla
renal pelvis
renal functional unit

renal medulla

ADH stimulates the reabsorption of water in __________.
the nephron loop
the collecting system
the distal convoluted tubule (DCT)
both the distal convoluted tubule and the collecting system

both the distal convoluted tubule and the collecting system

What are the three concentric layers of connective tissue that protect and anchor the kidneys?
hilum, renal sinus, and renal corpuscle
cortex, medulla, and papillae
fibrous capsule, perinephric fat capsule, and renal fascia
major calyces, minor calyces, a

fibrous capsule, perinephric fat capsule, and renal fascia

Blood supply to the proximal and distal convoluted tubules of the nephron is provided by the __________.
afferent arterioles
interlobular veins
peritubular capillaries
segmental veins

peritubular capillaries

In a nephron, the long tubular passageway through which the filtrate passes includes the __________.
proximal and distal convoluted tubules and the nephron loop
collecting tubule, collecting duct, and papillary duct
renal corpuscle, renal tubule, and rena

proximal and distal convoluted tubules and the nephron loop

What is the primary site in the nephron where the loss of water, sodium, and potassium ions is regulated?
nephron loop and collecting duct
glomerulus
distal convoluted tubule
proximal convoluted tubule

nephron loop and collecting duct

Which of the following is NOT reabsorbed in the nephron loop?
sodium
bicarbonate
chloride
water

bicarbonate

What is the primary site for secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions into the filtrate?
nephron loop
distal convoluted tubule
proximal convoluted tubule
renal corpuscle

distal convoluted tubule

The filtration of plasma that generates approximately 80 liters/day of filtrate occurs in the __________.
proximal convoluted tubule
distal convoluted tubule
renal corpuscle
nephron loop

renal corpuscle

Sixty to 70 percent of the water is reabsorbed in the __________.
renal corpuscle
proximal convoluted tubule
distal convoluted tubule
collecting duct

proximal convoluted tubule

Which portion of the renal segment is under ADH and aldosterone stimulation?
nephron loop
distal convoluted tubule
vasa recta
proximal convoluted tubule

distal convoluted tubule

Dilation of the afferent arteriole and glomerular capillaries and constriction of the efferent arteriole when blood flow and glomerular pressure decline cause __________.
decrease in the glomerular filtration rate
an increase in the secretion of renin and

elevation of glomerular blood pressure to normal levels

Which of the following organic wastes is generated from the catabolism of amino acids?
urea
creatinine
uric acid
None of the listed responses is correct.

urea

The average pH for normal urine is about __________.
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0

6.0

Autoregulation controls the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by __________.
dilation of the glomerular capillaries
dilation of the afferent arteriole
constriction of the efferent arteriole
All of the listed responses are correct.

All of the listed responses are correct.

The pressure that represents the resistance to flow along the nephron and conducting system is the __________.
blood colloid osmotic pressure (BCOP)
capsular hydrostatic pressure (CHP)
glomerular hydrostatic pressure (GHP)
capsular colloid osmotic pressur

capsular hydrostatic pressure (CHP)

Which mechanism is important in the reabsorption of glucose and amino acids when their concentrations in the filtrate are relatively high?
pinocytosis
active transport
facilitated transport
countertransport

facilitated transport

What is the primary site of nutrient reabsorption in the nephron?
renal corpuscle
nephron loop
proximal convoluted tubule
distal convoluted tubule

proximal convoluted tubule

In countercurrent multiplication, the countercurrent refers to the fact that an exchange occurs between __________.
sodium ions and chloride ions
solute concentrations in the nephron loop
fluids moving in opposite directions
potassium and chloride ions

fluids moving in opposite directions

What is the result of the countercurrent multiplication mechanism?
decreased solute concentration in the descending limb of the nephron loop
decreased transport of sodium and chloride in the ascending limb of the nephron loop
increased solute concentratio

increased solute concentration in the descending limb of the nephron loop

When antidiuretic hormone levels rise, the distal convoluted tubule becomes __________.
less permeable to water; reabsorption of water increases
less permeable to water; reabsorption of water decreases
more permeable to water; water reabsorption increases

more permeable to water; water reabsorption increases

What results from the effect of aldosterone along the DCT, the collecting tubule, and the collecting duct?
increased conservation of sodium ions and water
increased sodium ion and water excretion
decreased sodium ion reabsorption in the DCT
increased sodi

increased conservation of sodium ions and water

The ureters are lined by what kind of epithelium, which allows them to be stretched when undergoing peristalsis and moving urine?
simple cuboidal
stratified squamous
simple columnar
transitional

transitional

What is the expanded, funnel-shaped structure in the kidney leading to the ureter?
renal hilum
renal calyces
renal pelvis
urethra

renal pelvis

Contraction of the muscular bladder forces the urine out of the body through the __________.
penis
urethra
nephron
ureter

urethra

During the micturition reflex, increased afferent fiber activity in the pelvic nerves facilitates __________.
urine ejection caused by contractions of the internal and external sphincter
the action of stretch receptors in the wall of the bladder
parasympa

parasympathetic motor neurons in the sacral spinal cord

Kidney stones, or calculi, can be formed by deposits of __________.
calcium
magnesium salts
uric acid
All of the listed responses are correct.

All of the listed responses are correct.

Which of the following causes urinary incontinence?
lack of ADH production
the loss of muscle tone in the urinary sphincter muscles
prolonged increase in the GFR
All of the listed responses are correct.

the loss of muscle tone in the urinary sphincter muscles

The renal corpuscle consists of __________.
renal columns and renal pyramids
the glomerular capsule and the glomerulus
major and minor calyces
the cortex and the medulla

the glomerular capsule and the glomerulus

The filtration process within the renal corpuscle involves passage across the filtration membrane, which consists of __________.
collecting tubules, collecting ducts, and papillary ducts
podocytes, pedicels, and slit pores
capsular space, tubular pole, an

fenestrated capillary endothelium, dense layer, and filtration slits

The thin segments in the nephron loop are __________.
relatively impermeable to water, ions, and other solutes
freely permeable to water and relatively impermeable to ions and other solutes
freely permeable to water, ions, and other solutes
relatively imp

freely permeable to water and relatively impermeable to ions and other solutes

The thick segments in the nephron loop __________.
contain an aldosterone-regulated pump
are characterized by ADH-regulated permeability
contain diffusion mechanisms for getting rid of excess water
contain transport mechanisms that pump materials out of t

contain transport mechanisms that pump materials out of the filtrate

The collecting system in the kidney is responsible for __________.
creation of the medullary concentration gradient
making final adjustments to the sodium ion concentration and volume of urine
absorption of nutrients, plasma proteins, and ions from the fi

making final adjustments to the sodium ion concentration and volume of urine

Which of the following systems is NOT used to excrete wastes from the body?
respiratory system
integumentary system
lymphatic system
digestive system

lymphatic system

Sympathetic innervation into the kidney is responsible for __________.
regulation of glomerular blood flow and pressure
stimulation of renin release
direct stimulation of water and sodium ion reabsorption
All of the listed responses are correct.

All of the listed responses are correct.

When plasma glucose concentrations are higher than the renal threshold, glucose concentrations in the filtrate exceed the transport maximum (Tm), and __________.
glucose is transported across the membrane by countertransport
the individual has eaten exces

glucose appears in the urine

What is the outward pressure forcing water and solute molecules across the glomerulus wall?
glomerular hydrostatic pressure
blood colloid osmotic pressure
capsular hydrostatic pressure
capsular colloid osmotic pressure

glomerular hydrostatic pressure

What are the opposing forces of the filtration pressure at the glomerulus?
capsular hydrostatic pressure and blood osmotic pressure
blood pressure and glomerular filtration rate
glomerular hydrostatic pressure and blood osmotic pressure
capsular hydrostat

capsular hydrostatic pressure and blood osmotic pressure

At a volume of __________ mL, there may be sufficient pressure in the bladder to force the opening of the internal urinary sphincter and, consequently, the external urinary sphincter.
200
250
400
500

500

Inadequate ADH secretion results in the inability to reclaim the water entering the filtrate, causing __________.
dysuria
glycosuria
dehydration
anuria

dehydration

What is the triple-layered muscle responsible for urinary bladder contractions?
internal urinary sphincter
urethral meatus
detrusor
trigone

detrusor

Aldosterone stimulates ion pumps along the distal convoluted tubule (DCT), the collecting tubule, and the collecting duct, causing __________.
countercurrent multiplication
a decrease in the concentration of the filtrate
a reduction in the number of sodiu

a reduction in the number of sodium ions lost in the urine

The high osmotic concentrations found in the kidney medulla are primarily caused by the presence of __________.
hydrogen and ammonium ions
sodium ions, chloride ions, and urea
excessive amounts of water
All of the listed responses are correct.

sodium ions, chloride ions, and urea

To regulate pH, all of the following are secreted into the fluid in the collecting system EXCEPT __________.
hydrogen
iron
All of the listed responses are correct.
bicarbonate

iron

Angiotensin II is a potent hormone that __________.
stimulates secretion of aldosterone by the adrenal cortex and epinephrine by the adrenal medulla
causes constriction of the efferent arteriole at the nephron
triggers the release of ADH in the CNS
All of

All of the listed responses are correct.

Sympathetic innervation of the afferent arterioles causes __________.
a decrease in GFR and an increase in filtrate production
a decrease in GFR and slowing of filtrate production
an increase in GFR and a slowing of filtrate production
an increase in GFR

a decrease in GFR and slowing of filtrate production

During periods of strenuous exercise, sympathetic activation causes the blood flow to __________.
cause an increase in GFR
increase to the skin and skeletal muscles and decrease to the kidneys
be shunted toward the kidneys
decrease to the skin and skeleta

increase to the skin and skeletal muscles and decrease to the kidneys

The functions of the urinary system include which of the following?
detoxifying poisons
regulating ion concentrations
stabilizing pH
All of the listed responses are correct.

All of the listed responses are correct.

The functions of the urinary system include all of the following EXCEPT __________.
regulating plasma concentrations of electrolytes
stabilizing blood pH
regulating body temperature
regulating blood volume and blood pressure

regulating body temperature

The kidneys are __________.
each surrounded by a fibrous capsule, adipose, and renal fascia
in a retroperitoneal location behind the parietal peritoneum
posterior to the spleen, stomach, and liver
All of the listed responses are correct.

All of the listed responses are correct.

The inner layer of the kidney is the __________.
cortex
renal sinus
medulla
renal papilla

medulla

The renal papilla __________.
projects into the renal sinus
consists of 6 to 18 pyramids
absorbs excess water
All of the listed responses are correct.

projects into the renal sinus

Urine production begins in the __________.
nephrons
papillae
pyramids
pyramids and papillae

nephrons

Which of the following statements about the hilum of the kidney is FALSE?
It is the site of the adrenal glands.
It is the point of entry of the renal artery and renal nerves.
It is a prominent indentation.
All of the listed responses are false; none is tr

It is the site of the adrenal glands.

A histological examination of the nephron would reveal simple squamous tissue __________.
in the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)
in the nephron loop
in the renal corpuscle
in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT)

in the nephron loop

Juxtaglomerular nephrons __________.
produce little urine
produce concentrated urine
account for 85 percent of all nephrons
do not produce urine

produce concentrated urine

Which portion of the nephron contains cuboidal cells covered with microvilli?
glomerulus
PCT
glomerular capsule
nephron loop

PCT

The segments of the nephron distal to the renal corpuscle are responsible for __________.
secretion of waste materials
reabsorption of over 90 percent of water from the tubule
reabsorption of useful organic substrates
All of the listed responses are corre

All of the listed responses are correct.

The renal corpuscle consists of the __________.
renal pelvis and renal papillae
major calyx and minor calyces
glomerulus and glomerular capsule
proximal and distal convoluted tubules

glomerulus and glomerular capsule

After passage through the nephron loop, the filtrate is __________.
extremely alkaline
more concentrated
unchanged
less concentrated

more concentrated

The collecting system __________.
is lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
adjusts the concentration and composition of urine
transports fluid to the renal pelvis and adjusts the concentration and composition of urine
transports fluid t

transports fluid to the renal pelvis and adjusts the concentration and composition of urine

Cortical radiate arteries branch to form __________, which enter __________.
efferent arterioles; glomeruli
vasa recta; venules
afferent arterioles; glomeruli
None of the listed responses is correct.

afferent arterioles; glomeruli

The capillaries surrounding the nephron loop are called __________.
the vasa recta
the juxtaglomerular complex
the glomerular capsule
glomeruli

the vasa recta

The fibrous capsule is __________.
a layer of collagen fibers that covers the outer surface of each kidney
a dense outer layer of fibers that anchors each kidney to surrounding structures
the outermost region of each kidney
a layer of adipose tissue that

a layer of collagen fibers that covers the outer surface of each kidney

Which portion of the nephron reabsorbs most of the important nutrients, such as glucose and amino acids as well as any plasma proteins?
proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)
glomerulus
nephron loop
distal convoluted tubule (DCT)

proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)

In which region of the kidney would you find the renal corpuscles?
renal pelvis
medulla
renal sinus
cortex

cortex

In which region would you find interlobar arteries?
renal sinus
cortex
renal column
renal pyramid

renal column

To which vessels does blood flow immediately after it passes through the arcuate arteries?
segmental arteries
cortical radiate arteries
afferent arterioles
glomerulus

cortical radiate arteries

Reabsorption and secretion at the kidneys involve __________.
osmosis
diffusion
carrier-mediated transport
All of the listed responses are correct.

All of the listed responses are correct.

Which of the following statements is FALSE?
Nutrient reabsorption occurs primarily at the proximal convoluted tubule.
The nephron loop regulates the amount of water lost in the urine.
Filtration occurs exclusively in the renal corpuscle, across the glomer

Active secretion occurs primarily in the collecting duct.

Which of the following is NOT an example of carrier-mediated transport?
active transport
cotransport
facilitated diffusion
osmosis

osmosis

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of carrier-mediated transport?
A given carrier protein normally works equally well transporting in both directions.
The membrane of a single tubular cell contains more than one type of carrier protein.
The di

A given carrier protein normally works equally well transporting in both directions.

Net filtration pressure can be measured as __________.
the addition of the blood colloid osmotic pressure and the interstitial colloid osmotic pressure
the difference between the net hydrostatic pressure and the blood colloid osmotic pressure
the differen

the difference between the net hydrostatic pressure and the blood colloid osmotic pressure

Because of the small diameter of the glomerular capillaries, the blood pressure in the efferent arteriole is __________ that of the pressure in the afferent arteriole.
lower than
much higher than
much lower than
higher than

much higher than

The difference between the net hydrostatic pressure and the net colloid osmotic pressure is the __________.
capsular hydrostatic pressure
glomerular hydrostatic pressure
net filtration pressure
glomerular filtration rate

net filtration pressure

The sympathetic division of the nervous system has which of the following effects on the kidney?
It triggers the release of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), which leads to relaxation of the smooth muscle in the walls o

It causes a decrease in the GFR because of the constriction of the afferent arteriole.

Which of the following disorders describes the production of very dilute urine as a result of a lack of ADH production?
diabetes mellitus type 1
diabetes mellitus type 2
diabetes insipidus
None of the listed responses is correct.

diabetes insipidus

The fluid in the ascending limb of the nephron loop moves __________ the fluid in the descending limb.
in the same direction as
in the opposite direction of
slower than
faster than

in the opposite direction of

Countercurrent refers to the __________.
exchange occurring between fluids moving in the same direction
exchange occurring between fluids moving in opposite directions
lack of exchange between two fluids
None of the listed responses is correct.

exchange occurring between fluids moving in opposite directions

Aldosterone __________ in the proximal convoluted tubule.
regulates osmolarity of urine
regulates glucose and amino acid exchange
regulates water reabsorption
regulates potassium and sodium exchange

regulates potassium and sodium exchange

Which of the following is NOT found in normal urine?
sodium
creatinine
urea
glucose

glucose

Which of the following statements concerning the nephron loop and its function is FALSE?
Sodium and chloride are pumped out of the thin descending limb of the nephron loop.
The nephron loop reabsorbs roughly half the water and two-thirds of the sodium and

Sodium and chloride are pumped out of the thin descending limb of the nephron loop.

Each of the following substances is secreted by the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) EXCEPT __________.
hydrogen ions
ammonium ions
chloride ions
potassium ions

chloride ions

The mucosa of the urinary bladder consists of __________.
detrusor muscles
simple cuboidal epithelium
stratified squamous epithelium
transitional epithelium

transitional epithelium

Which of the following statements concerning the micturition reflex is FALSE?
Interneurons in the spinal cord relay sensory information to the cerebral cortex.
Relaxation of the external sphincter occurs under voluntary control.
The micturition reflex is

The micturition reflex is controlled by neurons in the lumbar region of the spinal cord.

Which of the following conditions does NOT occur as the urinary system ages?
The number of functional nephrons declines.
Problems occur with the micturition reflex.
The GFR declines.
Nephrons become more sensitive to ADH.

Nephrons become more sensitive to ADH.

Which of the following is NOT an effect of aging on the urinary system?
problems with urinary retention
decline in the number of functional nephrons
increased sensitivity to ADH
reduction in the GFR

increased sensitivity to ADH