Introduction to Psychology unit 6

� Acculturative Stress

Stress caused by moving to a foreign culture and all the requirements to adapt to a new and strange place.

� Acute Stress Disorder

A stress disorder where symptoms (like trouble sleeping, irritability, poor concentration, avoidance and emotional withdrawal) last for less than a month.

� Adjustment Disorder

A mental disorder where a person has trouble coping with ordinary stress, or cannot adjust, which results in emotional/behavioral problems.

� Aggression

A response to frustration where a person attempts to harm someone or something.

� Agoraphobia

Anxiety or fear of being in open spaces or unfamiliar ones where escape is difficult.

� Alarm Stage

The stage where the body initially reacts to a stressor in the short-term and has an excitatory, fight or flight, reaction.

� Alzheimer's Disease

A form of cognitive dementia where the person begins to lose long-term memory, and eventually loses language and body functions, resulting in death.

� Ambivalence

Mixed feelings about the situation.

� Anxiety Disorder

A disorder in which people feel worry or unease in a pervasive or particularly strong or unnecessary way, which impairs their life in some way.

� Approach-Approach Conflict

When a person must choose between two things that he or she wants.

� Approach-Avoidance Conflict

When a person both wants and doesn't want a thing.

� Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict

When a person must choose between two things that he or she doesn't want.

� Biofeedback

Giving a person information about their body's activities.

� Bipolar Disorders

Mood disorders where a person switches between extremes of mania and possibly depression.

� Bipolar I Disorder

A person diagnosed that has had at least one manic episode, in the absence of anything that might cause it, like medication or drugs.

Bipolar II Disorder Criteria

A form of bipolar disorder that includes the appearance of both depression and hypomania.

� Burnout

Physical, mental, and emotional exhaustion as a result of a person's job.

� Catatonic Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia marked by long periods of rigidity and inactivity, where the person "freezes up", and by sudden, agitated bursts of activity.

� Compulsions

Actions that person feels compelled to perform repeatedly to reduce feelings of anxiety from obsessions.

� Conversion Disorder

A type of somatoform disorder where a person "converts" anxiety or severe emotional problems into physical symptoms.

� Coping Statements

Positive, reassuring statements to stop negative self-statements.

� Cyclothymic Disorder

A form of bipolar, where a person experiences longer periods (at least 2 months) of hypomania and depression that are generally, but not always, milder.

� Defense Mechanisms

Unconscious learned patterns of protecting oneself from anxiety.

� Delusions

A strong belief that a person holds, regardless of contrary evidence.

� Dementia

A global loss of cognitive ability, which affects primarily memory but can also affect attention, language, and problem solving.

� Depression

A mood disorder marked by low affect or emotion and reduced activity, lack of enjoyment in activities, and feelings of loneliness and hopelessness.

� Disorganized Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia where a person shows very disordered and incoherent and bizarre thought as well as lack of or inappropriate emotion.

� Displaced Aggression

A response where a person takes out frustration on something completely unrelated.

� Dissociative Amnesia

A dissociative disorder where a person loses part or all of their memory, particularly relating to who they are.

� Dissociative Identity Disorder

A dissociative disorder where a person has more than one different, distinct personalities that display at different times; a.k.a. Multiple Personality Disorder.

� Dysthymic Disorder

A form of depression that isn't as severe as major depressive disorder and that lasts for a longer period of time (for the majority of the time for at least two years).

� Emotion-Focused Coping

Attempting to control a person's mental and emotional reaction to a stressor.

� Endogenous Depression

A form of depression with a specific genetic component related to the brain's production of neurotransmitters.

� Escape

Moving away from the obstacle and the goal; abandoning what is causing frustration.

� Exhaustion Stage

The stage when the body's resources are depleted and it is worn out from constantly responding to the stress.

� Frustration

An emotional reaction that occurs when a person cannot do what he or she wants or reach his or her goal.

� Gender Dysphoria

When a person's sexual identity within their mind, or psychologically, doesn't match their physical sexual identity.

� General Adaptation Syndrome

The pattern of stages that a body goes through when it is stressed for longer periods of time.

� Generalized Anxiety Disorder

An anxiety disorder where a person has a feeling anxious or tense without any specific cause for at least 6 months.

� Guided Imagery

A coping strategy related to meditation, where a person, instead of relaxing the mind, instead thinks of things that are positive and calming.

� Hallucinations

An imagined sensation, or a feeling that person has without any stimulus to cause it.

� Health Psychology

Studies the relationship between behavior and health and uses psychological principles to promote health and prevent illness.

� Hope

The feeling that things will get better and that a person isn't helpless.

� Hypochondriasis

A somatoform disorder when a person interprets small, normal bodily functions as symptoms of serious illness.

� Insanity

A legal term which determines the mental "fitness" of a person and their level of responsibility.

� Learned Helplessness

When a person learns over time that they are unable to overcome or escape certain obstacles and learns to accept them.

� Major Depressive Disorder

A depressive disorder in which a person experiences depression for at least two weeks.

� Lifestyle Diseases

Diseases and problems related to the way a person lives and the choices he or she makes.

� Maladaptive Behavior

Ways of thinking or acting that that make it difficult to adjust to the environment and new situations, and make day-to-day life difficult.

� Meditation

A trained relaxation technique in which a person focuses on something (like breathing, body sensations, imagery, surroundings, etc.) to gain an increased awareness.

� Mood Disorders

Psychological disorders marked by major changes in mood or emotion.

� Narcissistic Personality Disorder

A personality disorder marked by long-term feelings of self-centeredness, thinking ideas are best, and thinking of others as an extension of self.

� Negative Self-Statements

Critical thoughts a person has that increase stress, particularly in anticipation of an event.

� Organic Mental Disorders

Mental problems that are inherited or the result of brain injury or disease.

� Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

A disorder in which a person becomes preoccupied with certain thoughts or feels a strong motivation or requirement to perform certain actions.

� Pain Disorder

A somatoform disorder where a person experiences chronic and often serious pain in one or more place, but which is psychological in origin, not physical.

� Panic Disorder

An anxiety disorder when a person has a constant feeling of anxiety with frequent periods of intense, unexpected panic; can occur with or without agoraphobia.

� Paranoia

A delusion where a person believes they are being persecuted by others.

� Paranoid Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia characterized by delusions of paranoia and grandeur, along with hallucinations, like voices in head.

� Personality Disorders

Maladaptive, long-lasting patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving.

� Phobia

A strong, irrational fear of specific things or situations.

� Positive Psychology

An area of humanist psychology that focuses on human strengths, virtues, and optimal behavior.

� Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

A stress disorder where symptoms (like trouble sleeping, irritability, poor concentration, avoidance and emotional withdrawal) last for more than a month.

� Postpartum Depression

Depression that develops in a woman after giving birth.

� Problem-Focused Coping

Attempting to control the thing causing the stress itself.

� Progressive Relaxation

A technique where a person intentionally tenses, then relaxes, specific muscles of the body in succession.

� Psychological Trauma

Mental injury or shock resulting from violence, abuse, neglect, or extreme stress.

� Psychoneuroimmunology

The study of how stress can affect immune system and make people more susceptible to illness.

� Psychopathology

The study of mental distress and disorder and of abnormal and maladaptive behaviors.

� Psychotic Disorders

Mental disorders that involve a split from, or loss of contact with, reality.

� Resistance Stage

The stage where over time, the excitatory reaction lowers and the body begins to adapt to the stress and to reach a normal-looking state.

� Scapegoating

When a person or group of people that are not responsible for a situation are blamed.

� Schizophrenia

A psychotic disorder characterized by disorganized or inconsistent thoughts, emotions, and behavior.

� Seasonal Affective Disorder

A type of depression where a person experiences mood changes along with changes in the seasons, particularly during autumn and winter.

� Sexual Disorders

Psychological issues related to sexual adjustment and impaired sexual functioning.

� Social Nonconformity

When a person does not conform to or follow accepted social or group norms.

� Social Phobia

Fear of being in social situations and interacting with others.

� Social Support

The quality and amount of relationships that a person has with others.

� Somatization Disorder

A somatoform disorder when a person complains about multiple physical and mental problems, but without any physical causes.drug addict

� Stress Inoculation

Where a person focuses on positive thoughts and feelings to reduce anxiety.

� Stress Management

Cognitive and behavioral skills that people learn for the purpose of reducing stress and its harmful effects.

� Stress Reaction

How body reacts to stress.

� Stress-Induced Illness

Where anxiety can cause people to become sick more often and more easily.

� Stress-Vulnerability Model

A theory of the cause of mental disorders that combines biological and environmental approaches.

� Stressor

Something or some event that causes stress and disrupts a person's environment

� Substance-Related Disorder

Abuse of or dependence on substances that affect the brain and mental states.

� Traumatic Stress

Major events that cause a person psychological or emotional harm.

� Undifferentiated Schizophrenia

Instances of schizophrenia that have some symptoms but not all of another type.

� Wellness

A positive state of mental and physical well-being.

� Obsessions

Thoughts or feelings that are unwanted and intrusive and create intense anxiety or worry in the person.