Sociology Final Exam

According to the text, (blank) and (blank) are categories that contribute to structured inequalities.
- gender; racial identity
- personal ethics; family dynamics
- physical attractiveness; innate talent
- intelligence; morality

gender; racial identity

Many young people complete their education and find it impossible to afford a new home despite having a well-paying job, yet their parents had a very different experience. This is an example of __________ mobility.
- downward intragenerational
- short-ran

downward

Most poor people do not receive welfare benefits because they
- often have families that are too large to qualify for welfare.
- earn too much to qualify.
- are not motivated to collect what they are eligible for.
- don't think welfare benefits will be he

earn too much to qualify.

One possible outcome of persistent intergenerational downward mobility might be that it could
- reinforce existing misconceptions about why the poor are poor.
- lead to a culture of poverty in the following generation.
- lead to an increase in the number

lead to a culture of poverty in the following generation.

Ownership of wealth, occupation, income, and education are the four main bases of which kind of stratification system?
- caste
- meritocratic
- class
- slavery

class

Suppose you have decided to spend the summer working as a house painter with two friends. You each handle a different aspect of the business, and you have collectively decided how much to pay each person, after material expenses. At the end of the summer,

surplus value

The homeless population in America is composed mainly of
- young single men of working age.
- families with children.
- children.
- elderly alcoholic males.

young single men of working age.

The proliferation of ways in which the Internet has become part of daily life includes the ability to obtain many services online, such as doctor appointments or consultations, taking courses, and even ordering textbooks. In many rural communities, Intern

social exclusion

What is one of the strongest predictors of income and wealth in later life?
- gender
- effort
- education
- genetic profile

education

What is the most significant difference between the working class and the lower class?
- Working-class families can usually get by with only one full-time worker in the family, while lower-class families need two full-time workers to get by.
- Members of

While working-class families often struggle to get by, they tend to have significantly more job and neighborhood stability than those in the lower class.

A vast majority of rapes are committed by
- relatives, partners, and other acquaintances.
- strangers.
- social misfits who cannot get sex any other way.
- men with a felony record.

relatives, partners, and other acquaintances.

A woman putting on makeup and a man yelling at someone when he actually wants to cry are both examples of
- "doing gender."
- the importance of gender.
- self-restraint.
- instinctual behavior.

doing gender.

Allison has worked at an insurance company for several years. Many of her male coworkers have Sports Illustrated calendars, which feature voluptuous women in bathing suits, and Allison's boss often makes comments about how nice she looks in the skirts and

sexual harassment due to a hostile work environment.

That women in most cultures often spend a significant amount of their time caring for children and not hunting or participating in warfare is cited as a reason why
- sex differences are basic to all cultures.
- biological factors such as childbirth determ

gender is in part biologically determined.

The learning of gender roles through social factors such as schooling, the media, and family is known as
- gender socialization.
- gendering.
- gender education.
- social construction.

gender socialization.

The reluctance of women to report instances of sexual harassment on the job can include which of the following?
- Legal barriers to resolving sexual harassment lawsuits can be expensive.
- They often do not understand how to say no to the person harassing

A fear of reprisal and loss of the job, which prevent speaking out.

What is gender?
- innate differences in character and ability between men and women
- social expectations about behavior regarded as appropriate for males and females
- an aspect of personal identity defined by sexual preference
- the biological and anato

social expectations about behavior regarded as appropriate for males and females

What is the glass ceiling?
- a description of the current fragility of male privilege within the workplace that suggests that women are very close to achieving total equality
- a promotion barrier that prevents a woman's upward mobility within an organiza

a promotion barrier that prevents a woman's upward mobility within an organization

Women represent well over half of the 550 million working poor worldwide, due primarily to
- persistent lack of educational opportunities that allow women to secure better jobs.
- persistent discrimination and lower wages.
- the high cost of medical servi

persistent discrimination and lower wages.

Worldwide, more women are injured as a result of beatings by a __________ than by any other cause.
- relative
- spouse
- policeman
- stranger

spouse

Dependency theories are built on ideas formulated by which theorist?
- Immanuel Wallerstein
- Max Weber
- Fernando Henrique Cardoso
- Karl Marx

Karl Marx

Food production in the world doubled between 1965 and 1999, and yet malnutrition and starvation persist. One reason that this continues to be the case is that
- impoverished countries spend too much of their GDP on military efforts.
- the food production

the food production itself is not evenly distributed worldwide.

If you have a smartphone, it has parts and subassemblies that come from all over the world, including Mexico, Israel, Belgium, Hungary, Singapore, South Korea, and, China. The demand for these devices fuels the need for the parts and subassemblies. This d

the global commodity chain.

In the United States, the price of agricultural products is often managed by destroying crops that have been overproduced. What does such information suggest about global hunger problems?
- Neoliberal policies on food production and distribution would eve

Hunger problems are more a result of unequal distribution of food than any overall food shortages.

The Grameen Bank pioneered the idea of microfinance and microlending in the early 1980s. Many microlending operations today use cell phones as a method for both requesting and issuing a loan. Cell-phone use is prolific, with India, Brazil, Nigeria, and Pa

technology adopters.

The United Nations defines "hunger" as a diet of __________ or fewer calories per day.
- 1,200
- 1,800
- 2,100
- 300

1,800

The phrase "emerging economies" is used in the text. Which answer explains why this term might be applied to both countries that are classified as middle-income countries and to those classified as high-income countries? The term
- is applied to any count

describes countries that, over the past two or three decades, have developed a strong industrial base.

What is dependent development?
- the process whereby Western nations established their rule in parts of the world away from their home territories
- the attempt to bring the cultural values of low-income countries more closely in line with those of high-i

the theory that poor countries can develop economically but only in ways shaped by their reliance on wealthier countries

Where are the vast majority of emerging economies found?
- Africa
- Latin America
- Asia
- Eastern Europe

Asia

Which of the following is true about the relationship between the technology gap and global inequality?
- The availability of new technologies in low-income countries is helping reduce global inequality.
- The refusal of technological innovators to engage

In a global system, the technology gap is both a result of, and a further cause, of disparities in wealth between nations.

A great deal of political and social energy has been directed at illegal immigration from Mexico into the United States. One of the possible arguments in favor of this type of immigration is that these immigrants
- cannot obtain schooling in their home co

bring ethnic and cultural diversity and help shape economic and social dynamics in positive ways.

Individuals with Japanese ancestry living in the United States at the beginning of World War II were required to relocate to internment camps following the bombing of Pearl Harbor in 1941. In spite of this harsh treatment (and in fact, most of the people

did not return to the separate neighborhoods they had lived in prior to the war.

New immigrants to the United States generally settle in what are termed "port of entry" states primarily because
- employment opportunities in these states are much better.
- social services such as medical and dental services are readily available in the

these states have large existing immigrant communities that welcome the newcomers.

One of the reasons why undocumented immigrants (those crossing the border illegally from Mexico) are able to find a place in the United States is that they
- only take jobs that no other workers would take.
- can be employed more cheaply and are easier to

can be employed more cheaply than other people and take jobs no one else wants.

Race is defined as "differences in human physical characteristics used to categorize large numbers of individuals." Many people assume that race is a biological fact, but it is actually a
- social construct.
- form of scientific racism.
- theory of racial

social construct.

The arrival of Europeans in the New World was marked by ethnocentric attitudes and a belief that, as Christians, their mission was to civilize the rest of the world. This legacy of colonization is often seen as instrumental in the rise of
- the slave trad

racism.

What happened in 1954 to set the civil rights movement in motion?
- The Black Panther Party was formed.
- The Supreme Court ruled, in Brown v. Board of Education, that "separate" education was inherently unequal.
- Martin Luther King delivered his famous

The Supreme Court ruled, in Brown v. Board of Education, that "separate" education was inherently unequal.

What is one possible explanation for the difference in level of assimilation between Japanese Americans and Mexican Americans?
- Japanese culture is much more similar to American culture than Mexican culture, so it was much easier for Japanese immigrants

The Japanese American experience of being imprisoned in internment camps provided a more poignant warning of the potential danger of being perceived as "foreign" than even wide-scale economic deprivation.

Which of the following coincided with the early period of colonization in ways that laid the groundwork for the development of modern racism?
- inherent European superiority
- scientific racism
- the Protestant Reformation
- the American Civil War

scientific racism

Which of the following is true of sociological conceptions of minority groups?
- Although they are considered culturally distinct by others, they always work hard to assimilate to mainstream culture.
- They are always small in number but may have access t

They are defined largely by the fact that such groups experience various kinds of disadvantages in a society.

According to researchers for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, approximately what percentage of child deaths from abuse or neglect are not recorded?
- 50 to 60 percent
- 20 to 30 percent
- 75 to 80 percent
- 8 to 10 percent

50 to 60 percent

Blood quantum laws were originally a way to assess membership in a Native American tribe and were used by the government to decide on federal benefits. These laws date to the early 1700s. Today, however, many Native American tribes continue to use this me

kinship ties

During the Great Recession, Jerry was laid off from his banking job. As a result, his wife changed from part-time to full-time work, and Jerry spent the term of his unemployment taking care of most of the domestic responsibilities. What can be concluded a

Large-scale social and economic changes yield changes in family structure and dynamics.

Marital rape was made illegal in all fifty states in 1993. The roots of marital rape reach back in history and are closely tied to the idea of conjugal rights and the obligation of women in a marriage. In the United States, male attitudes toward women oft

unequal power relationships.

What did sociologists Judith Stacey and Timothy Biblarz find was the most significant difference between children raised by straight parents and those raised by gay parents?
- Children raised by gay parents were more likely to be held back a grade in scho

Children raised by gay parents were less likely to adhere to gendered expectations and norms.

Which of the following is cited in the textbook as a reason for the increased frequency of divorce since the 1960s?
- A rising emphasis on personal satisfaction in marriage has made people less likely to remain in marriages that do not make them happy.
-

A rising emphasis on personal satisfaction in marriage has made people less likely to remain in marriages that do not make them happy.

Which of the following is one of the most powerful predictors of divorce?
- marrying young
- having an advanced degree
- having children
- marrying past age 30

marrying young

Which of the following is true of single-parent households?
- Most single-parent households are deeply embedded in extensive kinship-based support networks.
- Although most single-parent households are headed by women, there is a great deal of economic an

Although most single-parent households are headed by women, there is a great deal of economic and social diversity within female-headed, single-parent households.

While the 1950s nuclear family has been promoted as the ideal family form, the text identifies several problems with it that are ignored in its mythical representations, including the
- loneliness and alienation experienced by large numbers of housewives

loneliness and alienation experienced by large numbers of housewives living within such a structure.

William J. Goode identifies several important changes in global family and marriage patterns. One of the main effects of these changes is that they are
- reducing the structural power of marriage itself.
- making such patterns in other parts of the world

making such patterns in other parts of the world more similar to the patterns found in Western, industrialized countries.

Congestion and overdevelopment in city centers throughout the world have led to serious environmental problems. Mexico City is a prime example of extreme air pollution, coming mostly from cars, buses, and trucks, with the rest deriving from industrial pol

smoking 40 cigarettes a day.

In the late 1700s, Thomas Malthus argued that population growth inevitably outstrips the available food, and that famine is an inevitable consequence. He counseled "moral restraint," delaying marriage, and abstinence. While population increases in many co

the production of food worldwide is sufficient, but it is not distributed to those who need it.

Placing limitations on economic growth to proceed only insofar as natural resources are recycled rather than depleted; maintaining biodiversity; and protecting clean air, water and land are all considerations contained in the notion of
- urban ecology.
-

sustainable development.

The United Nations has developed several fertility scenarios that attempt to look at world population growth by the year 2100. These scenarios ignore the concept of the demographic transition, which is likely to result in a surge in the population as deat

dependency ratio.

The highest percentage of child poverty in the United States can be found in
- the border between Mexico and the United States.
- rural areas, such as Appalachia and the Mississippi Delta.
- the inner-city areas of large cities, such as Los Angeles.
- the

rural areas, such as Appalachia and the Mississippi Delta.

The movement of ethnic minorities into existing urban environments was often the result of social and economic marginalization and inequality. The Chinese presence in sections of large cities is a good example. Invariably labeled "Chinatown," these inner-

city dwellers are able to collaborate with others of similar background, creating and joining other subcultural groups.

Today, more than half the world's population resides in cities. Tokyo, one of the most populous cities in the world, has over 10 million residents and is considered
- an urban village.
- a megalopolis.
- a conurbation.
- a megacity.

a megacity

Urbanization is the result of
- people moving into the city from surrounding areas.
- the measure of density of persons per square mile.
- the continuous network of large cities.
- the process of industrialization.

the process of industrialization.

What is one primary reason for the higher urban growth rate in the world's less-industrialized cities?
- higher literacy rates
- contentious rural politics
- the lack of infrastructure connecting cities
- internal migration from rural areas

internal migration from rural areas

What was one of the most significant conclusions of the fifth assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)?
- The amount of snow in some parts of the world has diminished.
- Human activity is the dominant source of the observed chang

Human activity is the dominant source of the observed changes in the global climate since the mid-twentieth century.