MGMT 301

Which assumption about the U.S. workforce is true?

Young college graduates are earning less than they used to.

Which of the following are included in the internal dimensions of diversity?


Which of the following are considered external dimensions of diversity?

-Educational background
-Parental status
-Marital status

Seniority, work content, management status, union affiliation, work location, and division or department are considered _________ dimensions of diversity


True or false: The term "diversity" is synonymous with differences.


Which statement about older workers is true?

Older workers are staying in the workforce longer.

What is included on Anita Rowe's "diversity wheel"?

-Organizational dimensions
-Internal dimensions

The ______ ceiling is a metaphor for an invisible barrier preventing women and minorities from being promoted to top executive jobs.


Age, gender, and race are ______ dimensions of diversity.


Which of the following is true of racial and ethnic populations in American business?

Minorities tend to have a lower median household income than whites.

In which layer of diversity would an individual's work experience be classified?

external dimension

What are true statements about the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community in the workforce?

-Transgender workers are at risk of being fired for their gender expression.
-LGB workers are at risk of being passed over for promotion because of their sexual orientation.

Which would be characterized as organizational dimensions of diversity?

-Work location
-Union affiliation

According to the Kessler Foundation, about what percentage of organizations have disability hiring goals?


What term describes retired workers' choice to return to the workforce?


What are reasons for the pay gap between women and men?

-Discrimination against women
-Women's care for children and family members

The Americans with Disabilities Act requires organizations to provide a reasonable _____ for individuals with disabilities in the workplace.


Which statements regarding workforce trends in the United States are true?

-The Caucasian population is expected to decrease to about 69% by 2060.
-The Hispanic population is expanding far more rapidly than any other race.
-Asians earn a higher median income than any other race.

Match the Big Five personality dimension with its description.

Extroversion - The extent to which a person is outgoing, sociable and assertive
Agreeableness - The extent to which a person is trusting, cooperative, and good-natured
Conscientiousness - The extent to which a person is dependable, reliable and responsibl

Danielle is considered to be the "life of the party". She's outgoing and gregarious. Which of the following Big Five personality dimensions would BEST describe these characteristics?


Tasha loves to travel, especially internationally. She's always eager to see new places, try new things, and learn about different cultures. Which Big Five personality dimension does this illustrate?

Openness to experience

Complete the sentence with all of the accurate statements regarding the relationship between conscientiousness and job performance. Conscientiousness is consistently and positively related to:

-leadership behavior
-task performance
-supervisor-rated liking

Personality is defined as the

stable psychological traits and behavioral attributes that give a person his or her identity.

Self-efficacy, self-esteem, locus of control, and emotional stability are traits that make up an individual's ______.

core self-evaluation

The personality dimensions of extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability and openness to experience are referred to as _____.

the Big Five personality dimensions

Even though she had never instructed anyone on how to use the new software, Millicent accepted the responsibility of instructing Sherri because she knew she was capable of doing the job. Which aspect of a core self-evaluation does Millicent's belief repre


People in the office can always count on Tyrone to get the job done. He's methodical, detail-oriented and his work is always completed on time. Which of the Big Five personality dimensions would this illustrate?


People with high rates of self-efficacy, including generalized self-efficacy, tend to have what characteristics?

-High job performance
-Higher rates of motivation

Irene has always been known to exhibit "grace under pressure". Even when she's under a tight deadline, she appears to be relaxed, confident and in control. Which Big Five personality dimension does this BEST describe?

Emotional stability

Which actions should managers take when employees exhibit low self-efficacy?

-Reward small successes
-Nurture self-efficacy by giving constructive pointers and positive feedback

Of the Big Five personality dimensions that have a positive relationship to job performance, _____ describes how dependable, responsible, and achievement-oriented a person is.


Learned helplessness is associated with which facet of a core self-evaluation?


Which traits are elements of an individual's core self-evaluation?

-Emotional stability
-Locus of control

Self- _______ is defined as the extent to which people like or dislike themselves, or their overall self-evaluation.


The "can do" aspect of our personality can best be described as ______.


The extent to which people believe that they control their fate through their own efforts is called _____.

locus of control

What is the term for the way individuals perceive their ability to perform across a variety of different situations?

Generalized self-efficacy

Jolene doesn't believe that "luck happens". She firmly believes that you make your own luck in life by what you do and how you do it. Jolene has a(n) ___________ locus of control.


True or false: Managers of employees with low self-efficacy can overcome this issue by lowering their expectations and assigning such employees to part-time jobs.


A(n) _____ locus of control indicates that you believe outside forces control you.


The debilitating lack of faith in your ability to control your environment is referred to as ______.

learned helplessness

People with low levels of emotional stability are more likely to experience:

-increased anxiety
-negative world views

The extent to which you like or dislike yourself is known as your _______.


The ability to monitor your own feelings and those of others and to use this information to guide your thinking and actions is referred to as _____.

emotional intelligence

Locus of control, or the extent to which people believe they control their fate through their own efforts, can be characterized as:
Multiple select question.


An individual who believes that she is in control of her fate through her own actions and efforts would be said to have _____

an internal locus of control

Match the component of emotional intelligence with its description.

Self-awareness - The ability to read your own emotions and gauge your moods accurately
Self-management - The ability to control your emotions and act with honesty and integrity
Social awareness - The ability to show others that you care and your understan

Mark failed his last test and blamed it on the fact that the test was poorly written and the room was too noisy for him to concentrate, not because he didn't study for the test. Mark would be said to have a(n) ___________ locus of control.


Self-_____ is the ability to read your own emotions and accurately assess your moods so that you know how you are affecting others.


The extent to which a person is relatively secure and unworried and how likely she or he is to experience negative emotions under pressure is known as _______.

emotional stability

An aspect of emotional intelligence that involves the ability to control one's emotions and act with honesty and integrity in reliable and adaptable ways is called _____.


Emotional intelligence reflects the ability to:

-carry out accurate reasoning about emotions
-monitor your and others' feelings and to use this information to guide your thinking and actions
-use emotions and emotional knowledge to enhance thought

The component of emotional intelligence known as _____ consists of empathy and organizational intuition, the ability to understand how your emotions and actions affect others within the organization.

social awareness

According to psychologist Daniel Goleman, what is the most essential trait of emotional intelligence?


Which element of emotional intelligence reflects your ability to use awareness of your emotions and the emotions of others to manage interactions successfully and build strong, personal bonds with others?

Relationship management

Jordan realized that his bad mood was causing other people in his work group to feel negatively about the project. Which aspect of emotional intelligence is Jordan displaying?


True or false: People can improve many aspects of their emotional intelligence.


Jeanine's motto is "Check your bad mood at the office door." Even if she's tired or upset, she makes an effort every day to control her emotions in the workplace. This is an example of which component of emotional intelligence?


What interdisciplinary field is dedicated to understanding and management of people at work?

Organizational behavior

Louisa seems to have a strong ability to accurately pick up on the emotions of others in the workplace, understand what is going on, and display a keen sense of empathy. Which element of emotional intelligence does this describe?

Social awareness

Abstract ideals that guide a person's thinking and behavior in all situations are called ______.


Attitudes are:

-directed toward specific objects, people, or events

Relationship management is the component of emotional intelligence that deals with the ability to:

-communicate clearly and convincingly
-disarm conflicts
-build strong personal bonds

How can you raise your emotional intelligence (EI)?

-Become aware of your EI level.
-Learn about aspects of your EI that could be enhanced.

I believe cheating on exams is dishonest and shows disrespect for the professor." This is an example of the _____ component of an attitude.


Organizational behavior is a field of study that explains and ______ behavior.


What is the psychological discomfort that people experience when their attitudes and behaviors are incompatible?

Cognitive dissonance


are abstract ideals that guide one's thinking and behavior across all situations

Three factors influence how people deal with the discomfort created by cognitive dissonance. Match each factor with its correct description

Importance - The extent to which you believe the elements creating the dissonance really matter.
Control - The extent to which you have a say in the matters creating the dissonance.
Rewards - The extent to which you have a personal stake in the situation.

A learned predisposition toward a given object is known as a(n) _________.


Alisha is irritated when she sees students smoking outside the dormitory. This demonstrates the _____ component of her attitude toward smoking.


Behavior is defined as the combination of which two elements?


Cognitive dissonance is defined as

the psychological discomfort a person experiences between his or her cognitive attitude and incompatible behavior.

The factors that influence how people deal with cognitive dissonance are:


Place the steps in the perceptual process in the correct order, with the first step listed at the top and the last step listed at the bottom.

1) Selective attention
2) Interpretation and evaluation
3) Storing in memory
4) retrieving from memory to make judgements and decisions

The tendency to attribute to an individual the characteristics you believe are typical of the group to which that individual belongs is known as _____.


A sex-role stereotype is the belief that

differing traits and abilities make males and females particularly well suited to different roles.

People's values and attitudes affect their workplace _____, which includes their actions and judgments.


Age stereotypes suggest that older workers are less healthy, less motivated, and more resistant to change, but a recent study found all of these things to be inaccurate.


The process of interpreting and understanding one's environment is called ______.


Which of the following demonstrates racial/ethnic stereotyping?

Connor decided to hire Edgar for the job instead of Maria because he felt that Hispanics were too compassionate.

Stereotyping is defined as the

tendency to attribute to an individual the characteristics one believes are typical of the group to which that individual belongs.

What is the term for the attitudes or beliefs that affect our understanding, actions, and decisions in an unconscious manner?

Implicit bias

When women are viewed as moody, emotional, and catty, whereas men are seen as strong and powerful, it is an illustration of ______.

sex-role stereotypes

The halo effect exists when we

form an impression of an individual based on a single trait.

Depicting older workers as less involved in their work, less motivated, and having higher absenteeism than their younger counterparts in the workplace is a stereotype based on ______.


The _____ effect is the tendency to remember recent information better than earlier information.


Which situations are examples of race/ethnicity stereotyping?

-During a staff meeting, Julius is asked to present the "black perspective" on the issues.
-When Marco makes a mistake, his co-workers sometimes excuse it because "Hispanics don't have experience with these things."
-When Patrick behaves foolishly at an o

Implicit bias is characterized by the

attitudes and beliefs that we unconsciously hold about groups of people

Causal attribution is the act of

inferring causes for observed behavior

Forming a positive impression of an individual based on a single trait is called _____.

the halo effect

In the fundamental attribution bias, a person attributes the behavior of another person to _____.

personal characteristics

The recency effect is defined as the tendency to

remember recent information better than earlier information.

The self-serving bias is characterized by the tendency to

take more personal responsibility for success than for failure.

The activity of inferring causes for observed behavior is known as causal _______.


The self-fulfilling prophecy is also known as the ______________ effect.


The ____________ bias is characterized by the tendency to attribute another person's behavior to their personal characteristics rather than to situational factors.

fundamental attribution

What is the term for taking more personal responsibility for success than for failure?

Self-serving bias

Employee engagement is defined as

a mental state in which a person performing a work activity is fully immersed in the activity, feeling full of energy and enthusiasm for the work.

Of all the employees in the world, which percentage are highly or moderately engaged on the job?


_____ occurs when people's expectations of themselves lead them to behave in ways that make those expectations come true.

Self-fulfilling prophecy

Which of these are person factors that contribute to employee engagement?

-Positive psychological capital
-Human and social capital

Which statements about companies with highly engaged employees are true, according to Gallup?

-They are more productive.
-They are more profitable.

What interventions are managers advised to adopt to increase employee engagement?

-Job resource building
-Health promotion
-Leadership training

_____ is defined as an individual's involvement, satisfaction, and enthusiasm for work.

Employee engagement

The extent to which you feel positive or negative about the various aspects of your work is called job ______.


Which region has the most highly or moderately engaged employees?

Latin America

A(n) ______ is an environmental characteristic that causes stress.


Roberto's job requires frequent travel. Other positions are available within the company, but his manager has not tried to accommodate Roberto's request for work that would allow him to stay closer to his family. Roberto has started applying for jobs with

organizational commitment

Which statements about employee engagement are true?

-Employee psychological well-being tends to increase customer satisfaction.
-Employee engagement tends to improve corporate-level financial performance.

What is organizational commitment?

The extent to which an employee identifies with an organization and is committed to its goals

What intervention to boost employee engagement focuses on "increasing individuals' self-perceived positive attributes and strengths"?

Personal resource building

Why is it important to manage employees as individuals who have different personalities and circumstances?

To influence the way employees behave

People who feel greater job satisfaction are also likely to experience greater ______.

-commitment to the organization
-life satisfaction

Which situations are examples of turnover?

-An employee retires at age 65.
-An employee is fired for stealing from the cash register.
-An employee resigns and accepts a different job with better pay.

The extent to which an employee identifies with an organization and is committed to its goals is known as organizational _____.


Which groups are often incorrectly perceived as having low organizational commitment?

-Pregnant women

_____ programs help employees integrate and transition to new jobs by making them more familiar with corporate policies, procedures, culture and politics and clarifying work-role expectations and responsibilities.


What are the types of employee behavior that managers can influence?

-Organizational citizenship behavior
-Turnover and absenteeism
-Performance and productivity
-Counterproductive work behaviors

When an employee abandons, resigns, retires, or is terminated from a job, we say that _______ has occurred.


______ is characterized by value-adding behaviors such as making constructive statements about the department, taking a personal interest in the work of others, making suggestions for improvements, and mentoring new employees.

Organizational citizenship

Which of these are examples of counterproductive work behaviors?

-Alcohol abuse

Managers can reduce turnover in organizations through which of the following ways?

-Basing hiring decision on the extent to which the applicants' values match those of the organization.
-Incorporating realistic job previews (RJPs).
-Providing post-hiring support through onboarding programs.

According to the Pew Research Center, which statement is accurate regarding predicted trends in the United States during the next few decades?

More women will continue to be hired for top leadership jobs.

Employees who frequently praise their co-workers, show up for work on time, offer helpful suggestions, and take good care of the company's equipment are demonstrating organizational ______.


_____ represents all the ways people are unlike and alike - the differences and similarities in age, gender, race, religion, ethnicity, sexual orientation, capabilities, and socioeconomic background.


_____ are types of behaviors that harm employees and the organization as a whole, such as absenteeism, tardiness, drug and alcohol abuse, sexual harassment, theft, and white-collar crime.

Counterproductive work behaviors

Which aspects are among the internal dimensions on the "diversity wheel"?


Which of the following best illustrates the mismatch between education levels and workforce needs in the United States?

Many college graduates are underemployed and working at jobs that require less education than they possess

The T in LGBTQ stands for _____, or a term for people whose sense of their gender differs from what is expected based on the sex characteristics with which they are born.


Which statements about people with disabilities are true?

-They are less apt to be employed than people without disabilities.
-They earn less than people without disabilities.

What legislation prohibits discrimination against the disabled and requires organizations to provide reasonable accommodation for an individual's disabilities?

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)

Someone who is ethnocentric believes that his or her native country, culture, language, abilities, or behavior is inferior to those of another culture.


Which of these are two important mismatches between education and the workplace?

-High-school dropouts and others may not have the literacy skills needed for many jobs
-College graduates may be in jobs for which they are overqualified

Some employees fear that attempts to diversify their organizations will result in bias against _____ employees.

majority group

What tend to happen in a positive diversity climate?

-The organization performs well.
-Employees are loyal to the organization.
-Employees have a sense of psychological safety.

_____ is the belief that one's native country, culture, language, abilities, and/or behavior are superior to those of another culture.


Psychological ______ reflects the extent to which people feel free to express their ideas and beliefs without fear of negative consequences.


Jeff works at a manufacturing company. Most of the employees are men. He is worried that the women at his company are promoted because of their gender, not because of their skills or accomplishments. Which barrier to diversity is best exemplified by Jeff'

Fear of discrimination against majority group members

To BEST support employees who are mothers, what should companies do?

-Give paid family leave.
-Offer them flexible hours.

What characterizes a hostile work environment?


An organization's ______ climate is the employees' aggregate "perceptions about the organization's diversity-related formal structure characteristics and informal values.


_________ is the tension people feel when they are facing or enduring extraordinary demands, constraints, or opportunities and are uncertain about their ability to handle them effectively.


A positive diversity climate enhances which of the following for employees?

Their psychological safety

True or false: Low levels of stress lead to optimal performance.


During the tax season, accountant Gregory is under considerable stress to complete all of his clients' tax returns. He finds that he is suffering from repeated headaches. This is an example of a(n) _____ sign of stress.


Select all of the accurate statements regarding organizational support for family demands.

-In 2016, 60.7% of two-parent families in the U.S. had two working parents
-In many households, women still take primarily responsibility for domestic work and childcare

When an individual reaches a state of emotional, mental, or even physical exhaustion, it is called _____.


Hostile work environments are:


Simple irritants, such as misplacing your keys or a phone number, are referred to as ______.


Stress is the feeling of tension and pressure; the source of that stress is known as a(n) _____.


People who are involved in a chronic, determined struggle to accomplish more in less time have a Type _____ behavior pattern.


Researchers believe that workplace stress generally affects job performance in which of the following ways?

-Low levels of stress lead to low performance
-High levels of stress lead to low performance
-Moderate levels of stress lead to optimal performance

An employee who experiences headaches, backaches and nausea as a result of workplace stress is displaying _____ signs of stress.


True or false: High-level jobs are often less stressful than low-level jobs because people with low-level jobs have less control over their lives.


Which of the following are common ways that employees express burnout?

-Showing indifference to performance
-Taking longer lunch breaks
-Missed deadlines

Sets of behaviors that are expected of occupants of a specific position are called _____.


Match the type of stressor with its description.

Hassles - Simple irritants, such as misplacing things or being overworked
Crises - Sudden occasions of terror, such as a tornado or fire
Strong stressors - Situations that can dramatically strain a person's ability to adapt, such as frequent migraine head

_____ occurs when other's expectations exceed one's ability.

Role overload

Which of the following are characteristics of a Type A behavior pattern?


What are examples of work-life conflict?

-Skipping your son's soccer game to attend a work meeting
-Missing an afternoon at work because you had to pick up your sick child from school

What are buffers to stress that is caused by group demands?

-Working with a manager who listens to you
-Working with people you like

What are examples of emotional labor on the job?

-Smiling at customers when they walk in the door
-Acting cheerful while taking a customer's order

A _____ is a socially determined expectation of how an individual should behave in a specific position; i.e., a set of behaviors that people expect of occupants of a position.


Which of the following is an example of an organizational demand that creates job-related stress?

Josh comes home from work each night complaining about the lack of lighting and ventilation in the plant.

Match the term with its description.

Role overload - Source of stress that occurs when others' expectations exceed one's ability
Role conflict - Source of stress that occurs when one feels torn by the different expectations of important people in one's life
Role ambiguity - Source of stress

When the demands or pressures from work and family domains are mutually incompatible, a person is experiencing ______-life conflict.


Which managerial behaviors can cause stress for employees?

-Acting unethically
-Asking too much from employees
-Disregarding employees' opinions

Which types of communication have been shown to increase stress among workers?

-Text messages

Managers can use introduce ________ to help reduce employees' work stress and improve their well-being.


True or false: Resilience is a capacity that can be learned and developed over time.


True or false: Employee assistance programs are aimed at helping employees cope with a variety of problems that negatively influence job performance.


Stephanie works for a company that offers a physical fitness center, a dietitian on staff in the cafeteria, and lower health insurance premiums for employees who exercise. These perks represent components of a _____ wellness program.


Administrative changes that managers can make to reduce the stressors that lead to employee burnout are called _____.


The capacity to bounce back from adversity and sustain yourself when confronted with challenges is called what?


To better help employees cope with family and workplace demands, Suzette's employer has a comprehensive program that includes counseling on family matters, financial problems, and drug and alcohol abuse. This is BEST described as a(n) _______ program.

employee assistance

What type of program encourages employees to balance physical, mental, and social well-being by developing and following a plan to improve their health?

holistic wellness