Chapter 2--History of Management

Management is...

Getting work done through others; efficiency and effectiveness

strategic plan

plans that clarify how a company will position itself over the next two to five years

just-in-time inventory

system in which parts are needed to make something arrive from suppliers just as they ar eneeded at each stage of production

How old is management as a field of study?

125 years old

What did the Greeks discover over 2500 years ago?

That putting boring repititious tasks to music or a beat led people to be more productive.


They developed a system of writing that enabled them to record and keep track of goods.


recognized the need for planning,organizaing, and controlling

King Nebuchadnezzar

pioneered techniques for producing goods and using wages to motivate workers

Cottage Industry

Homes were placed in a semicircle and each part of the task was completed by a different house and sent to the next house e.g. textile industry;

Management wasn't needed until after...

Industrial Revolution

Industrial Revolution

1. Mass production was born
2. Hundreds of people worked under one roof

Joseph Wharton

Gave money in 1881 to the University of Pennsylvania to establish a departement to educate students for management

Henry Towne

president of the Yale and TOwne Manufacturing Company, said that managing people and work processes was just as important as engineering work. It was its own separtae field of study.

Seat of the pants management (before scientific management)

1. No standardization of procedures
2. No follow up on improvements

scientific management

studied and tested different work methods to identify the best, most efficient ways to complete a job

Frederick Taylor, 1856-1915

1. "father of scientific management"
2. He worked his way from worker, to patternmaker, then supervisor, then chief engineer


Deliberately restricting ouput, a method employed by workers in the steel plant that Frederick Taylor knew about

rate buster

someone who worked faster than everyone else

How many principles did Taylor have?


Taylor's Four Management Principles

1. Develop a science for each element of a man's work which replaces the old rule-of-thumb method.
2. Scientifically select and then train, teach, and develop the workman
3. Cooperate with the men to insure all work is done in accordance with the principl

Frank and Lillian Gilbreth

Used motion studies to simplify work hated unnecessary motions; employment of handicapped workers, and industrial psychology


using the least amount of resources (time, money, materials, etc.) and using them in the best possible way


hitting all the targets

Time Study

timing how long it took a first class man to do the job and then using this a time was set and depending on whether you went over or under determined your pay

motion study

took actions and broke them down into single steps and eliminated those thought to be unnecessary

paradigm shift

A change in thinking that is so radical that you never go back to the original way; shift from seat of the pants management to scientific management


An instrument (clock) that measured 1/2000 of a sec; used in motion studies

Henry Gantt

1.protege and associate of Frederick Taylor, came up with Gantt schedule; dates on the x-axis and tasks on the y-axis; created deadlines and accountability
2. He believed in not punishing workers for not reaching the set number; he gave bonuses to those w

Problems with Scientific Management

1. One best was to do something did not embrace change; technology improvement or natural chaos
2. worker played a passive role; a cog in a machine
3. there were no feedback systems
4. people were not self-managed

Contributions of scientific management

1. Managers can control and predict and analyze the behavior of their company
2. managers needed to acquire new management skills
3. motivation systems

Lillian gilbert

She was the first woman to get her Phd in management; she fought for workplace safety, ergonomics, child labor laws

Bureaucratic Management

Max Weber; bureaucracyy--ruling on the basis of experience, leadership, or knowledge

Administrative Management

Henri Fayol; what and how managers should manage

Human Relations Management

focuses on the psychological and social aspects of work; efficiency alone is not enought to produce organizational success and success depends on treating workers well

Mary Parker Follett

A lot of the ideas of human relations management can be traced back to her; she was a social worker who began speaking about management practices in her 50s

Follet's take on conflict

She developed ideas regarding constructive conflict and coordination; conflict could be beneficial

Ways of Dealing with conflict

1. domination--victory of one side over the other; not successful in the long run
2. compromise--settle our controversies; but this requires giving up something from both sides
3. integrative conflict resoluion--have both parties indicate their preference

Follet's Four Fundamental Principles of organizations

1. coordination as reciprobal relationg all the factors ine a situation
2. coordination by direct contact of the responsbile people concerned
3. coordination in the early stages
4. coordination as a continuing process

Elton Mayo, 1880-1948

australian man most noted for his Hawthorne studies

Hawthorne Studies

Two groups of six experienced ladies were separated from the rest by a 10 foot partition, and consistently despite light changing levels, increased or decreased rests, or pay they consistently came out more productive:

Conclusion to Hawthorne Studies

those conducting the research concluded that it was because these women were receiving higher amounts of attention and the fact that they were consulted about changes and were allowed to negate if so inclined; but it's also because of the team aspect
So i

Hawthorne studies also showed for the first time that...

human factors related to wok were found to be more important than the physical conditions or desgin of the work--worker's attitudes and feelings affected their work

Chester Barnard

cooperation and acceptance of authority


a system of consciously coordinated activities or forces of two or more persons

People will be indifferent to managerial directives if they...

are understood
are consistent with the purpose of the organization
are compatible with the people's personal interests
can actually be carried out by those people

Willing Cooperation ws gained through three things

1. securing essential services form individuals through incentives
2. unifying the poeple in the roganization
3. providing a system of communication