Sociology exam 2

____sociology focuses on small scale patterns.

micro

Sociologists can gauge _____, like communication processes, by observing everyday behavior and how people relate to each other.

nonmaterial facts

One of the criticisms of the functionalist theory is that_____

it is so focused on order and stability that it often ignores social change.

_____ _____ investigate how principles of social order explain a particular society, while _____ _____ explore how individuals and societies change over time.

Social statistics; social dynamics

______ theory analyzes contemporary societies characterized by postindustrialization, consumerism, and global communications.

Post modern

According to C. Wright Mills, a person's behavior is influenced by _____

social factors such as religion, ethnicity, and politics.

In _____ _____, a social scientist tries to grasp the intention and context of a person's behavior.

explanatory understanding

______ theory views society as a complex system of interdependent parts that work together to ensure a society's survival.

functionalist

_____sociology focuses on large-scale patterns.

Macro

_____ observational understanding is is when one observes facial expressions and behavior and determines their emotion.

Direct

_____ _____ are intended and recognized; they're present and clearly evident.

Manifest functions

Early sociology thinkers agreed that people are transformed by _____.

each others actions, social patterns, and historical changes.

Unlike Auguste Comte, Emile Durkheim _____

not only acknowledged the importance of scientific methods to study society but also used them.

_____ _____ theory is commonly criticized because it overlooks the widespread impact of macro-level factors on our everyday behavior and relationships.

symbolic interaction theory.

Because common sense is _____, it ignores facts that challenge cherished beliefs.

subjective

____ can help people make informed decisions.

Sociology

_____ _____ _____ are preferred because the results can be generalized to a larger population.

random sample surveys

A major limitation of mailed survey questionnaires is they have ___ ____ ____

low response rates

_____ _____ is observing something, recording it, then coming up with a hypothesis.

Inductive reasoning

Sociological research influences ___ _____.

Social policies

_____ studies are more useful in examining rends in behavior or attitudes than ____ studies.

Longitudinal; cross-sectional

The students of a university in Massachusetts were asked to evaluate their professors and the courses they teach. The results revealed that most of the students gave a very low rating to 1 of their professors because they did not like their teaching techn

validity

_____ is the relationship between two or more variables.

correlation

Which of the following is an example of a tradition?

Jane throwing a bouquet and her wedding.

Every ten years the U.S census Bureau mails forms. This is a _____.

survey

_____ _____ are organized and systematic procedures to gain knowledge about a topic.

Research methods

_____ is a relationship in which one variable is the direct consequence of another.

Causation

What is a reason for researchers to select sample to represent a population?

The population may be so large that it would be expensive and time consuming to conduct the research.

Context analysis is ____ and not time consuming.

Inexpensive

In _____ _____, sociologists collect data by systematically observing people in their natural surroundings.

Field research

____ and ____ are two different but equally valuable approaches in examining the relationship between variables.

Induction; deduction

_____ refers to the method or combo of methods a sociologist uses to test a hypothesis.

Methodology

_____ _____ are useful in examining trends in behavior or attitudes.

longitudinal studies

Much of our knowledge is based on _____.

Tradition

Sociologists rely on techniques that include: _____

careful data collection, exact measurement, accurate recording and analysis of the findings, thoughtful interpretation of results, and, when appropriate, generalization of the findings.

Obese women being more likely to receive multiple complications during child birth is an example of ____.

Correlation

_____ _____ consists of the physical objects that people make, use, and share.

Material culture

Unlike folkways and norms, laws are _____.

deliberate

_____________ is NOT an example of popular culture.

The Royal Shakespeare society

Cultural integration promotes ___ and ____.

Order; stability.

_____ is a culture that rebels or questions authority and the dominant culture.

Counterculture

____ ____ refers to the beliefs, practices, activities, and products that are widespread among a population.

popular culture

Symbols communicate info that _____.

varies across societies and may change over time.

_____ distinguish one culture rom another.

symbols

_____ are formal and repeated behaviors that unite people.

rituals

____ ____ is when outside countries influence a culture to change something.

External pressure

WE have all internalized culture norms and values. Thus, to some degree, we are all ____ ____.

Culture bound.

_____ is the process of creating new things.

Invention

Cultural universals are _____

customs and practices that are common to all societies.

____________ illustrates a cultural universal.

Dancing on special occasions.

An example of a tabooed behavior in U.S society is: -----

eating human flesh

Members of the upper class can pursue the fine arts and similar activities because they have _____ _____.

Cultural capital.

Ethnocentrism is function because it ________.

Reinforces conformity and maintains stability.

Even when mores, values, and laws catch up with tech innovations and inventions, they can create unexpected problems such as ________.

Pollution, drug shortages, and high medical costs.

_____ are an example of nonmaterial culture.

customs

Unlike social scientists, biologists focus on the role of ____ in human development.

heredity

_____ __ _____ refer to public rituals that mark the transition from one social position to another.

Rites of Passage

The first step of resocialization in total institutions is __________.

being subjected to degradation ceremonies.

In _____ ____, parents focus on their own needs, spend little time interacting with the children, and know little about their interests or whereabouts.

uninvolved parenting

____ ____ isn't considered a genetic factor that shapes a child's behavior.

Alcohol abuse

Appreciation made Dwain confident and he put more effort into future projects. This is his _____.

Response

socialization is a ________.

powerful force in shaping who we are.

______ parenting is demanding but warm.

Authoritative

______ is the process of unlearning old ways and adopting new attitudes, values, etc.

resocialization

Many women, especially white women who are unhappy with their bodies, turn to ____ ____.

cosmetic surgery

A _____ is typically a child's most powerful role model.

parent

_____ ____ is when we provided info and cues to others to present ourselves in a favorable light while downplaying our faults.

Impression management

______-_____ is learning to take the perspectives of others.

role-taking

In the second resocialization step, ______

the staff tries to build a new identity that conforms to the institution's expectations.

Social learning theories do NOT explain _____

why reinforcement and modeling affect some children more than others.

The concept of the looking-glass self was proposed by ______.

Charles Horton Cooley.

______ is NOT the process of self-evaluation and informed decision making.

Internalization

_____ is the process of learning cultural behaviors and expectations so deeply that people accept them without question.

Internalization

Which of the following is true about social Media's effects on family?

Cell phones have increased the frequency of interaction between families.

In the workplace, women and men who occupy high-level decision-making positions have ______.

Similar interaction styles with superiors and subordinates.

____ ____ include gestures, facial expressions and eye contact.

visual cues

____ ____ has had a mixed effect on families.

social media

____ are considered relational because they are connected to other statuses.

statuses

___ ____ refers to the difficulty in playing two or more contradictory roles.

role conflict

____ ____ can be interpreted in various ways across cultures and groups over time.

social interaction.

Statuses, roles, groups, organizations, and institutions make up ____ ____.

social structures

____ Americans are the most connected group in the U.S.

Asian

____ show conversational dominance by speaking more frequently and for longer periods.

men

The higher the socioeconomic status, _____.

The greater the consumption of space.

____ ____ is the actual behavior of a person who occupies a status.

role performance

____ ___ ___: standing very close and touching someone.

violating personal space

____ are more likely than ____ to use touching to show sexual interest.

men; women

The term ---- ---- can be defined as an organized pattern of behavior that governs people's behavior.

social structure

____ is a social position that a person occupies in society.

status

Social interaction can be defined as the process of _____________.

acting toward and reacting to people around us.

Status sets include both _____ and ____ statuses.

ascribed; achieved

_______ is the study of how people construct and learn to share definitions of reality that make everyday interactions possible.

ethnomethodology

Progress is slow due to collaboration and communication, this is ____ ____.

collaboration overload

The type of communication used in bureaucracy ___ ____ one of its' strengths.

is NOT

What are the five major social institutions?

Family, education, economy, government, and religion.

____ ____ are groups we interact with in task-oriented settings.

secondary groups

____-____ leaders usually allow their members to do their own thing.

Laissez-faire

People change _____.

institutions

Feminist scholars point out that ___________.

across all social classes, women consistently fare worse than men.

Asch's research demonstrated ________.

the power of groups over individuals.

an out-group can become a _____ group.

reference

Bureaucracies are ____ and ____.

efficient and predictable.

_____ _____ are examples of people in distant social networks.

LinkedIn subscribers

From a functionalist perspective, investing more in workers than equipment ______ rational bureaucratic response.

is NOT

Martha ____ wrong to assume her choir group, whom she interacts infrequently with, to adhere to group norms when interacting with her.

is NOT

True Ideal Types __________.

provide composite pictures of how structures, events, and behaviors differ.

The ___ ___ __ ____ explains the tendency of a bureaucracy to become increasingly dominated by a small group of people.

Iron law of Oligrachy

a ____ ____ is a large group of people who interact with one another over a short period.

primary group

____ ___ states higherups will hire people who are similar in values to benefit themselves.

conflict theory

Daisy had to change jobs four times due to her incompetence. Which social institution failed her?

education

Secondary groups _____ meet one's expressive needs

DONT

Deviance _____ in terms of time, situation, group, or culture.

varies

___ ___ are crimes aimed at specific people due to their membership of a group.

hate crimes

In the context of Robert Merton's Strain Theory, ____ is a way to adapt to social strain.

conformity

____ is universal because it exists in every society.

deviance

Among the top arrests, the only crime with no gender gap is _____.

embezzlement.

___ ___ ___ states that crime rates increase when offenders don't fear apprehension.

crime control model

____ ____ include a vast array of illicit activities such as conspiracies to stifle free market competition, tax evasion, etc.

corporate crimes

High-status people commit crime's in part because ________.

because most white-collar and corporate crimes are not criminalized.

Corporate crimes are also known as ______ _____.

organizational crimes.

Stigmatized people ____________________.

may hide info about some aspect of their deviance.

_____ is one of the approaches to control deviance by maintaining appropriate treatment to change offenders into productive, law-abiding citizens.

rehabilitation

The FBI's (UCR) does not include ________.

corporate crime, kidnapping, and internet crimes.

According to functionalists, deviance is functional because it _________.

bolsters the economy.

_____ is when one experiences confusion in a culture.

Anomie

____ __ ____ is when one's deviant behaviors are explained by a diagnosed mental disorder.

Medicalization of deviance

According to conflict theorists, high-status people crimes ___ ___ ____.

have fewer penalties.

According to functionalists, deviance is dysfunctional because it __________.

decreases confidence in institutions.

____ deviance is simply breaking behavioral norms, not the law.

Informal

According to differential association theory, _____________.

people are products of their socialization.