What is the process called that harmless bacteria could change and become virulent
Who discovered transformation?
Avery and McCarty
discovered that DNA is the transforming factor
Hershey and Chase
studied bacteriophages, proved DNA carries genetic code
Virus that injects bacteria
polymer of nucleotides, nucleotide has 3 parts, 1. deoxyribose 2. phosphate group 3. nitrogenous base
What does the DNA structure look like?
4 nitrogenous bases
How many nitrogenous bases does DNA have?
adenine and guanine
cytosine and thymine
to form long chains
Why do nucleotides link together?
sugars and phosphates bond covalently
What is the backbone of DNA?
Franklin and Wilkins
took x-ray of DNA molecule
DNA is twisted
What does the x-ray indicate?
Watson and Crick
Who built the 3-D model of DNA
Who's picture helped Watson and Crick build the DNA model?
a spiral "double helix
What did Watson and Crick's model look like?
adenine pairs with?
thymine pairs with?
guanine pairs with?
cytosine pairs with?
(A-T)(C-G) hydrogen bonds hold 2 strands of DNA together
What is base pairing?
WIlkins, Watson, and Crick
Who won the nobel peace prize in 1962?
She was dead and the prize is not awarded after death
Why didn't Franklin get a nobel peace prize?
DNA must replicate so each new cell has a complete copy of DNA.
before a cell can divide ____.
each strand is a ______ for a new strand
That DNA unzips
What did Watson and Crick hypothesis?
What breaks bonds between base pairs?
match up with free bases
What do the new base pairs do?
T A C G A T G A C DNA transcription
A T G C T A C T G DNA transcription
DNA has a set of instruction coded in _______ of nucleotides.
Part of the DNA sequence is copied into ____
nucleic acid that is a messenger between DNA and ribosomes
What is RNA?
RNA carries out ______ _________
long polymer of nucleotides
What is the structure of RNA?
RNA SUGAR IS RIBOSE-DNA SUGAR IS DEOXYRIBOSE
RNA IS SINGLE STRANDED-DNA IS DOUBLE STRANDED
RNA HAS URACIL(U)-DNA HAS THYMINE(T)
the U bonds with the A instead of the T
WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN DNA AND RNA?
messenger RNA, transfer RNA, and ribosomal RNA
What are the three forms of RNA?
Carries DNA code to ribosome
What does messenger RNA do?
brings amino acids to ribosomes
What does transfer RNA do?
forms structure of ribosome
What does ribosomal RNA do?
_______ ______ is copied into RNA
What transfers DNA into RNA
What attaches to DNA?
separates DNA and builds complementary strand of RNA
What does RNA polymerase do?
A C T G A T G C A G RNA transcription
U G A C U A C G U C RNA transcription
DESCRIBE THE PROCESS OF DNA REPLICATION
COMPARE AND CONTRAST DNA AND RNA
DESCRIBE HOW THE DNA CODE LEADS TO THE FORMATION OF A PROTEIN
DNA helicase, DNA polymerase, DNA ligase
What are the three DNA enzymes?
What is the RNA enzyme?
What does DNA helicase do?
bonds nucleotides to rejoin DNA
What does DNA ligase do?
What does DNA polymerase do?
What does all of the work in DNA replication?
Who gets all of the credit for DNA replication?
pattern(template) for the code
side by side but against each other
What holds the two strands of DNA together?
Where is DNA found?
Where are proteins made?
How does DNA control cell function?
How many nucleotides are in 1 cell?
Hershey and Chase
Who convinced the science community the DNA was genetic material
visus the injects bacteria
sugar and phosphate
What are the backbones to DNA?
DNA bonds are_____?