Phonology Sounds


coordinated movements of articulators to produce speech sounds


where the constriction occurs


How the airstream modified as it passes through the vocal tract


air pressure behind the point of constriction


friction like air through a narrow passage


starts as stop, ends as fricative

Phonological Processes

-Patterns heard in younger speech
-Typically resolve over time
-Considered a problem if it doesn't resolve

Final Consonant Deletion

deletion of the final consonant in a syllable or word
EXAMPLE - bed pronounced as beh

Cluster Reduction

deletion of one or more consonants in a cluster
EXAMPLE - clap pronounced as cap

Syllable Reduction

deletion of a syllable from a word containing 2 or more syllables
EXAMPLE - computer pronounced as puter


substitution of a more anteriorly produced sound for the target sound
EXAMPLE- get pronounced as det


substitution of a stop for a fricative or affricate
EXAMPLE - ship pronounced as tip

Prevocalic voicing

voicing of an initial voiceless consonant
EXAMPLE - pig pronounced as big