Module 2: Kingdom Monera Study Guide

Pathogen

An organism that causes disease

Saprophyte

An organism that feeds on dead matter

Parasite

An organism that feeds on a living host

Aerobic

requires oxygen

Anaerobic

without oxygen

Steady state

A state in which members of a population die as quickly as new members are born.

Exponential growth

Population growth that is unhindered because of the abundance of resources for an ever-increasing population.

logistic growth

Population growth that is controlled by limited resources

Conjugation

A temporary union of two organisms for the purpose of DNA transfer.

Plasmid

A small, circular section of extra DNA that confers one or more traits to a bacterium and can be reproduced separately from the main bacterial genetic code.

Transformation

The transfer of a DNA segment from a nonfunctional donor cell to that of a functional recipient cell.

Transduction

the process in which infection by a virus results in DNA being transferred from one bacterium to another

Endospore

The DNA and other essential parts of a bacterium coated with several hard layers.

Strains

Organisms from the same species that have markedly different traits.

capsule

A sticky layer that surrounds the cell walls of some bacteria, protecting the cell surface and sometimes helping to glue the cell to surfaces.

cell wall

A rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane and provides support to the cell

plasma membrane

regulates what enters and leaves the cell

DNA

holds the information the mass of chemicals a living entity

Ribosomes

Makes proteins

Fimbria

A short, hairlike appendage of a prokaryotic cell that helps it adhere to the substrate or to other cells.

Flagellum

A long, whip-like structure that helps a cell to move

What is the most popular means by which bacteria obtain food?

most bacteria are heterotrophic decomposers

If a bacterium is parasitic, is it heterotrophic or autotrophic?

heterotrophic

List the basic steps in asexual reproduction among bacteria.

1. DNA loop is attached to a point on the plasma membrane
2. The DNA is copied and is attached to the plasma membrane close to the place where the original is attached
3. After copy is made, the cell wall elongates separating the two strands of DNA
4. Onc

A sample of food is dehydrated, which kills all of the bacteria. However, in a few days, bacteria-free water is added to the food in a bacteria-free environment. Nevertheless, microscopic investigations indicate that bacteria are in the food. How did the

The bacteria were endospores

What kind of growth does a population of bacteria experience when just a few of them are placed in an environment rich with resources?

Exponential growth

A population of bacteria experiences logistic growth. What can you say about the resources of their environment?

There are limited resources but they don't run out

Even though genetic recombination among bacteria does not result in offspring, it can significantly affect the growth of the population. Why?

Genetic recombination can pass a trait from one bacterium to another. If that trait allows the recipient to survive the conditions that it otherwise wouldn't . The population is affected, because the recipient continues to live and reproduce asexually

What are the technical names of the three common bacterial shapes?

Coccus-spherical
Bacillus-rod-shaped
Spirillum-helical

A bacterium is heterotrophic and Gram-negative. To what phylum and class does it belong?

phylum Gracilicutes, class Scotobacteria

A spirillum bacteria bacterium is Gram-positive. To what phylum and class does it belong?

phylum Gracilicutes, class Scotobacteria

A bacterium has no cell wall. To what phylum and class does it belong?

phylum Firmicutes, class Thallobacteria

A bacterium lives in boiling-hot water. To what phylum and class does it most likely belong?

phylum Tenericutes, class Mollicutes

In the six-kingdom classification system, what replaces kingdom Monera?

Eubacteria

What conditions are ideal for most bacteria to grow and reproduce?

moisture,moderate temperatures,nutrition,darkness, and the proper amount of oxygen

What methods exist for reducing the chance of bacterial contamination of food?

heat and seal
dehydrate
freeze
pasteurize
keep in refrigerator