Chapter 6: Human Population


individuals need space and resources and produce waste


per capita resource use


allows increased exploitation of resources (but can also reduce our impact)

The IPAT model

Our total impact on the environment results from the interaction of population, affluence, and technology.

doubling time

how long it will take for a country's current population to double (determined by dividing 70 by the growth rate)

Growth rate

immigration and reproduction - emigration and death/year

Basic human needs

Drinkable Water, edible food, safe housing, health care, an education, a job

Natural rate of population change

population change due to birth and death rates alone

Epidemiologic Transition

Death rate has decreased due to health in developed countries

Fertility Transition

Birth rates have declined in developed countries


Crude birth rates


Crude death rates

Phase 1

Primitive stability - high CBR & high CDR

Phase 2

Declining CDR & CBR remain high

Phase 3

Declining CBR

Phase 4

Modern stability - low CBR & low CDR