Honr 112 Exam

Emotional Distance in Families

very little distance between parents and adolescents unlike stereotypesmost teens: feel close to parents, respect parent' judgment, feel loved by parents, respect parents as individuals20% of american teenagers say their top concern is not spending enough time with parentsusually does not increase with age

Ethnic Differences in Parenting Style

-authoritative parenting is less prevalent among Black, Asian or Hispanic families than among white families-beneficial effects are found for all ethnic groups-demanding and controlling parenting strategies are more prevalent among ethnic minority than among white families-adverse affects are greater for white adolescents than for ethnic minorities-may carry benefits for ethnic minorities who live in dangerous areas

Foster Care

-a placement in a temporary living arrangement when a child's parents are not able to provide care, nurturance or safety -can be with members of extended family, non-relatives, or group homes-1/3 enter as adolescents-parental maltreatment or deliquency

Generational Gap

-popular advice for parents of teens; emphasizes non-normative development stereotypes of strained relationships, self-fulfilling prophecy-parents and teens have similar core values, like religion, work ethic, education but have differences of opinion for matters of personal taste like style of dress, music, leisure-teens interests are shaped more by their friends than parents at this age

Midlife Crisis

-psychological crisis over identity believed to occur between the ages of 35 and 45 (age range of most adolescents parents)-increased concern about bodies, physical attractiveness, and sexual appeal-beginning to feel that the possibilities for change are limited

Parent-Teen Disagreement

-argue over mundane issues like curfew, leisure time, activities, clothing, cleanliness of their rooms-disagreements stem from different perspectives on issues and violations of expectations

Parental Demandingness

-how much do you expect from your child-the degree to which the parent expects and insists on mature, responsible behavior from the child

Sandwich Generation

-pressed from the bottom and top-40's and 50's-your kids are really expensive but so are your parents

Self-fulfilling Prophecy in Families

the idea that individuals' behavior is influenced by others' expectation for them

Sibling Deidentification

process by which siblings deliberately try to be different from eachother

Sleeper Effects With Divorce

-effects of divorce that may not be apparent until much laters in child's development -adjustment difficulties expressed may not surface until adolescents -specific developmental challenges of adolescence



Baby Boom

period following WWll during which the number of infants born was extremely large

Crowd Changes Over Time



-bullying that occurs over the internet or via cell phones-far less common than in person harassment-those who engage in traditional bullying also engage in cyberbullying


type of research in which individuals are observed in their natural settings


-organized peer groups of antisocial individuals -identified by name and common symbols-members are at greater risk for many types of problems like antisocial behavior, psychological distress, exposure to violence, victimization-members tend to be more isolated from their family, to have more emotional and behavioral problems and to have poorer self-conception

Hostile Attributional Bias

-tendency to interpret ambiguous interactions with other as deliberately hostile -plays a central role in aggressive behavior of rejected adolescents

Iatrogenic Effects

undesirable consequences of well-intentioned treatments

Participant Observation

research technique in which the researcher "infiltrates" a group of individuals in order to study their behavior and relationships

Peer Groups

groups of individuals of approximately the same age

Reactive Aggression

-aggressive behavior that is unplanned and impulsive-those who have problems controlling aggression

Sex Segregation

-begins in childhood and continues thru adolescence-more common in Whites than Blacks-weakens in later adolescence-cliques are largely formed based on similar interests and activities -young adolescents sensitivity about sex roles

Social Map of Adolescence

adolescent crowds can be placed along two dimensions: how involved they are in the institutions controlled by adults such as school and extracurricular activities and how involved they are in the informal, peer culture like the partyers

Social Norms



-unpopular youth may lack the social skills and social understanding necessary to be popular with peers-easy targets for bullying, creates a cycle of teasing, feeling less socially adept, leading to more bullying, blame themselves for their victimization-can lead to lower earning as an adult because of the cyclical nature of bullying-peer harassment can be experienced directly or indirectly like being bullied or watching someone get bullied-kids who come from less affluent families are more likely to get bullied-prevalence of bullying is higher in schools and countries with greater income inequality

Big Fish Little Pond Effect

reason that individuals who attend high school with high-achieving peers feel worse about themselves than comparably successful individuals with lower-achieving peers

Comprehensive High School

-general education, college prep, vocational education all housed under one roof-educational institution that evolved during the first half of he 20th century-offering a varied curriculum and designed to meet the needs of a diverse population of adolescents

Desegregation of Schools

-Landmark U.S. Supreme Court rulings legally ended segregation of schools (Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka 1954)-has little impact on achievement levels of either minority or white adolescents-minority youngster's self-esteem is higher when they attend schools in which they are in the majority

Gifted Students

-score 130 or higher on IQ test-unusually talented in some aspect of intellectual performance

Learning Disability

-a difficulty with academic tasks that cannot be traced to an emotional problem or sensory dysfunction-actual academic performance less than expected from IQ tests-assumed to have neurological problems like dyslexia, dysgraphia, dyscalculia-1 in 5 school age children, more common in boys

Lethal School Violence

-widely publicized but rare-impossible to predict which students will commit these acts-adolescents are more likely to be killed at home or in the community than in school-effective policies: limiting access to guns, identifying and treating young people with mental health problems, creating school climates where students feel responsible for each other and prepared to take action if they hear.see something

School Transition

-middle school or junior high-grades and academic motivation drop-score on standardized achievement tests do not decline -student motivation and changes in grading practices may be changing, not student knowledge

School Vouchers

government subsidized vouchers that can be used for private school tuition

Secondary Education

-system of middle schools, junior high schools and high schools-nearly 95% of individuals 14-17 are enrolled in school

Self-fulfilling Prophecy in Schools


Social Promotion

-practice of moving students from one grade to the next automatically, regardless of their school performance -arguing that poor and ethnic minority youth especially were being cheated out of a good education

Standards Based Reform

-holds schools and students to a predetermined set of standards measured by achievement tests-difficult to establish the standards-problems when a large proportion of high school seniors do not pass standardized graduation examinations (economic, social, and political costs of holding back a large number of students is too great)

Student Engagement

-the extent to which students are psychologically committed to learning and mastering the material rather than simply completing the assigned homework

Zero Tolerance

-get tough approach to adolescent misbehavior that responds seriously or excessively to the first infraction-has not helped, school violence is reduced through programs that attempt to create a more humane climate

Adolescent Consumer

-teenagers spend more than 90 billion/year-money is spent on purchases related to leisure activities-alcohol and cigarettes-viral marketing: use facebook and myspace to target thousands of teens because of their influence over friends' purchasing habits

Adolescent Workplace

-dreary, few jobs permit adolescents to behave independently to make decisions-receive little instruction from their supervisors-rarely required to use the skills they have been taught in school -repetitive, monotonous, intellectually unchallenging

Digital Divide

-the fact that adolescents from different economic and cultural groups have differential access to digital technology

Employment and Building Character


Experience Sampling Method

-moods are generally most positive when they are with their friends; least positive when they are alone-moods when they are with their family fall somewhere in between-between grades 5 and 9 adolescents' moods while with friends become more positive-moods while with their family become more negative between grades 5 and 7 and then rise between grades 8 and 9

Impact of Adolescent Work on Schooling

-working more than 20 hours a week may jeopardize adolescents school performance and engagement -absent from school, less likely to participate in extracurricular activities, report enjoying school less, spend less time on their homework

Pattern of Time Use in Adolescence

-far more time in leisure and far less time in productive activities

Positive Youth Development

the goal of programs designed to facilitate healthy psychosocial development and not simply deter problematic behavior

Premature Affluence

having more income than one can manage maturely, especially during adolescence

Routine Activity Theory

-a perspective on adolescence that views unstructured, unsupervised time with peers as a main cause of misbehavior

Self-Care Children

-do not differ in psychological development, school, achievement, or self conceptions-may be more socially isolated, more depressed, more likely to have problems at school, be sexually active at younger ages, engage in other problem behavior, and use more alcohol and drugs-important to keep in mind that there are important differences within self-care populations


sending sexually explicit pictures over the internet, usually by smartphone

Student Worker


Media-Saturated Environment

-all american households have TV's, computers, and internet access regardless of family income-2/3 of adolescents have their own cell hone-spend nearly 8 hours a day using 1+ media-10% of teens' video game behavior is considered pathological

Teen Work Environment


Viral Marketing

a way of promoting products or services by encouraging individuals to pass information on to others

Youth Unemployment

-rare but some teens who wish to work are unable to find jobs-majority of unemployed youth are high school dropouts