Russia and the Republics


How much of the Earth's land surface does Russia and the Republics take up?

8.6 million square miles

What is the region's landmass in square miles?

Europe and Asia

Which continents does Russia and the Republics sprawl across?

11 time zones

How many time zones does Russia and the Republics cross through?

285 million people

What is Russia and the Republics approximate population?

the United States

Which country has a highler population: Russia and the Republics or the United States?

from the western border of Russia and the Republics to the Ural Mountains

Where does the Northern European Plain stretch from?


What is one of the world"s most fertile soil called?

The Northern European Plain

Where is Chernozem located?


How much of Russia and the Republic's population lives on the Northern European Plain?


What is Russia's capital city?


What is the capital of Ukraine?

The Northern European Plain

Where is Moscow and Kiev located?

The Ural Mountains

What separates the Northern European Plain and the West Siberian Plain?

between the Ural Mountains and the Yenisey River

Where is the West Siberian Plain located?

West Siberian Plain

Which plain tilts northward?

The Arctic Ocean

Where do rivers on West Siberian Plain flow to?

high plateaus

What makes up the Central Siberian Plateau?

1000-2000 feet

What is the average height of the plateaus on the Central Siberian Plateau?

between the Yenisey and Lena Rivers

Where is the Central Siberian Plateau located?

The Russian Far East

What lies to the east of the Lena River?

its complex system of volcanic ranges

What is the Russian Far East known for?

120 volcanoes

How many volcanoes are on the Kamchatka Peninsula?

20 volcanoes

How many volcanoes are still active on the Kamchatka Peninsula?

The Russian Far East

Where is the Kamchatka Peninsula located?

The Caucasus Mountains

What stretches across the land that separates the Black and Caspian seas?

Russia and Transcaucasia

What countries does the Caucasus Moutains form a border between?

Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia

Which republics make up Transcaucasia?

the Arctic Basin which then delivers water to the Arctic Ocean

Where do the Ob, the Yenisey, and the Lena Rivers drain in to?

the Volga River

What is the longest river on the European continent?

the Caspian Sea

What is the largest inland sea in the world?

Lake Baikal

What is the deepest lake in the world?


How much of the world's fresh water is in Lake Baikal?

coal, iron ore, oil & natural gas, forests, and hydroelectric power

What are the 5 abundant resources that are found in Russia and the Republics?

because of harsh climates, rugged terrain, and vast distances

Why is it difficult to remove resources from the ground and transport them to markets in Russia and the Republics?


Where are most resources located in Russia and the Republics?


What is a frigid and subarctic region of Russia?


In Russia, where is it difficult to attract workers because of this severe region?

Humid continental and subarctic

What climates dominate much of Russia and the Republics?


What reflects the influence of Russia and the Republics high latitude?

hundreds of miles; continentality

How far is Russia and the Republics from the moderating influence of the sea? What is this called?


What climate is in Trancaucasia?

semiarid and desert

What climates are in Central Asia?

tundra, forest, steppe, and desert

What are the 4 major vegatation regions in Russia and the Republics?


What vegatation region falls mostly in the Arctic climate zone?

mosses and low shrubs

What types of vegatation grow in the tundra region?


Which vegetation region includes the taiga?

south of the tundra

Where does the taiga (the largest forest in the world) lie?


What vegetation region is a large grassland area that is a major source of grain for the region?


What vegetation region occupies the wide plains in the west and central areas of Central Asia?

Kara Kum and Kyzyl Kum

What are the 2 main deserts?

Russia & the Western Republics, Trancaucasia, and Central Asia

What are the three subregions of Russia and the Republics?

in the region between the Baltic and Black seas

Where did the Russian state begin?

the Vikings settled in the region of Kiev along the Dnieper River

In the 9th century, what made the Russia and the Western Republics settlement begin to expand?

the Mongols

In the 1200's, who sacked Kiev and would control the region until the 1500's?

Russian leader, Ivan the Great

In the 1500's, who put an end to centuries of foreign rule?

after Ivan the Great put an end to foreign rule

After what event did Russia enter a period of explosive growth?

the Pacific Ocean

By the end of the 1600's, Russia had built an empire that extended to where?

population of people; many of the people belonged to different ethnic groups, spoke different languages, and practiced different religions

As more territory contunined to grow in Russia, what also grew? What was unique about this?

Russian science and technology

What lagged behind other European rivals?


What does Czar mean?

Czar of Russia, Peter the Great

Who tried to modernize Russia from 1682-1725?

St. Petersburg on the Baltic Sea to provide direct access to Western Europe

Where did Peter move Russia's capital (orginally in Moscow) to? Why?

in the 1800's

When was the Industrial Revolution?


Who did people blame for Russia's lagging behind?

the Russian Revolution

What even occured which ended the rule of the czars in 1917?

the Russian Communist Party, led by V.I. Lenin

Who contolled the Russian government after the czars?

the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)

In 1922, what did the communists rename Russia to?

Joseph Stalin

Who took over the Soviet Union after Lenin died ?

during World War II

When did Jospeh Stalin led the Soviet Union?

pro-Soviet governments were set up in the Eastern European countries

What happened after World War II?

tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States

What led to the conflict known as the Cold War?

Mikhail Gorbachev

In the 1980's, who started to give more economic and political freedom to the Soviet people?

the region was divided into 15 independent republics

What happened after the Soviet Union collapsed?

the Russian Federation

What is Russia formally known as today?

popularly elected president

What kind of president does Russia have today?

a legislature made up of 2 chambers

What kind of legislature does Russia have today?

Estonia, Lativa, and Lithuania

What republics make up the Baltic republics?

The Baltic Republics, Belarus, Moldova, and Ukraine

The 6 republics formed from the western regions of the former Soviet Union include:

German philosopher, Karl Marx

Who were the Communists inspired by?

command economy; central government

Soviet leader adopted a _____________ - one in which the __________ makes all important economic systems.


Who do historians think was responsible for the death of 14 million people?

14 million people

How many people did historians estimate Stalin was responsible for the death of?

the Russians

Who are the largest ethnic group in the region?

Orthodox Christianity, Buddhism, Islam, and Judaism

What are 4 religious groups in Russia and the Western Republics?

in the West

Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the region is more open to the influence of other countries, especially those where?

Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan

What countries make up Transcaucasia?

a migration route especially between Europe and Asia

What have people used Transcaucasia as?

Transcaucasia because of so many trade routes

What has been affected by many different peoples and cultures? Why?

more than 50 different peoples

How many different peoples live in Transcaucasia?

Jabal Al-Alsum which means "Mountain of Language

What did Arab geographers called the region of Transcaucasia? What does this mean?

Christian or Muslim

What are the main religions in Transcaucasia?

Russian empire

Transcaucasia became part of the ________ in the late 1800's.

after the Russian Revolution

When did Transcaucasia enjoy a brief period of independence?

the Red Army

What was the name of the Soviet military?

the Red Army

Who took over Transcausia by the early 1920's?

after the fall of the Soviet Union

When did the republics regain their independence?

agriculture and oil production

What are the major economic activites in Transcaucasia?


What is the most dominant economic country in the region?

land of flames" because of the fires that erupted from the oil and gas deposits of the Caspian Sea

What does the name Azerbaijan mean? Why?

literacy rate

What among the Transcausian people is the highest in the world?

100 BC

When did travelers first begin to make their way across Central Asia in large numbers?

China; the Mediterranean Sea; the Silk Road because of the costly silk bought in China

Many of the travelers to Central Asia joined caravans making the 4,000 mile journey between _______ & _______. What did trader call this route and why?

ideas, technology, and religion

What did the Silk Road become a route of spreading?

Great Britain and Russia; the Great Game

In the 19th century, who began to struggle for control of Central Asia? What did this struggle become known as?

the Russian Empire

By the end of the 19th century, who had won control over Central Asia?

the Soviet Union

Who took control of Central Asia in the 1920's and governed the region until 1921?

nuclear industry

What was the main economic activity in northeastern Kazakhstan?


What is a more hopeful potential natural resource in Kazakhstann?

political and legal

For Central Asia's resources to benefit its people, leader must establish stable ________ and _______ institutions.


What religion is most people in Central Asia?


What language do most people speak in Central Asia?


Who are the expansive grasslands of Central Asia ideal for?

Yurt (a tent)

What is one of the Nomads most valuable possessions?