APUSH vocab 1

James Oglethorpe

founded a penal colony in Georgia in 1733 that was a buffer

William Penn

A Quaker that founded Pennsylvania to establish a place where his people and others could live in peace and be free from persecution.

Quakers

people who broke from the church of England fleeing to Pennsylvania

King Philip's War

Early, bloody conflict between English colonists and Native Americans. English won but slowed westward migration for Indians.

Anne Hutchinson

first women rights person known in history. challenged beliefs of puritans saying that a holy life was no sure salvation and that if you are truly saved don't need to be obey laws of man

Roger Williams

A dissenter who clashed with the Massachusetts Puritans over separation of church and state and was banished, after which he founded the colony of Rhode Island.

fundamental orders

The first constitution written in North America; granted ALL adult males to vote not just church going land owners as was the policy in Massachusetts

John Winthrop

founded puritan Massachusetts bay colony. sought to create a Utopian puritan society. thought democracy was the "meanest and worst" forms of government.

Massachusetts Bay Colony

Colony founded by John Winthrop, part of the Great Puritan Migration, founded by puritans. serious about working and going to church.

Mayflower Compact

Agreement in which settlers of Plymouth Colony agreed to obey their government's laws

Pilgrims

group of protestants seeking religious freedom

Puritan

A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.

Church of England

Protestant church led by the king of England, independent of Catholic Church

The Great Migration

Movement of African Americans from the South to the North for jobs.

Nathaniel Bacon

Planter who led a rebellion in 1676 against the governor of the Virginia Colony

William Berkley

Governor of Virginia, who profited from his position and was blamed for a drop in tobacco prices which incited Bacon's Rebellion, after which he was removed from office.

Indentured Servant

Laborer who agreed to work without pay for a certain period of time in exchange for passage to America

Maryland

A catholic haven for people seeking refuge from religious persecution

House of Burgesses

the first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia

Headright System

who ever paid the passage of a laborer received the right to acquire fifty acres of land

John Rolfe

Jamestown colony leader who showed that tobacco could be grown successfully in Virginia - married Pocahontas

Pocohontas

An American Indian princess and helped form more peaceful relations with the Powhatan when she married John Rolfe

Powhatan

Chief of the Powhatan Confederacy and father to Pocahontas

John Smith

prevented the colony from failing through his strong leadership. He established peace with the local tribe by making friends with the Chief's daughter, Pocahontas

Virginia Company

English joint-stock company that received a charter from King James I that allowed it to found the Virginia colony.

Jamestown

The first permanent English settlement in North America

John Peter Zenger

a NY newspaper printer was charged with seditious libel for attack the corrupt Royal Governor in his paper

Jonathan Edwards

Preacher during the First Great Awakening; "Sinners in the hands of angry god

Navigation Acts

Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. made it impossible to trade with other countries

Sir Edmond Andros

Much-loathed administrator of the Dominion of New England, established strict control doing away with the town meetings and popular assemblies and taxing colonists without their consent

Mercantilism

the theory that a country should try to get and keep as much bullion, or gold and silver, as possible

Slave Codes

Laws that controlled the lives of enslaved African Americans and denied them basic rights.

Middle Passage

A voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies

John Locke

English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property.

Pequot War

Conflict between English settlers and Pequot Indians over control of land and trade in eastern Connecticut

Royal Colony

colony under the direct control of the English crown/monarch

The enlightenment

a movement that emphasized science and reason as guides to help see the world more clearly

Mercantilism

An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought

indigo

A plant used to make valuable blue dye produced by Caroline

Jonathan Edwards

Preacher during the First Great Awakening; "Sinners in the hands of angry god

Maryland Toleration Act

Act that was passed in Maryland that guaranteed toleration to all Christians

New England Town Hall Meetings

Allowed citizens at the local level to govern themselves through direct democracy.

Proprietorship

A business owned by one person

Tobacco

Cash crop that made a profit and saved Jamestown