APUSH Vocabulary

Incas

native group in Peru that was the largest pre- Colombian empire; monarchy, economy on goods and services, strict labor tax system, terrace farming, irrigation, polytheistic

Aztecs

native group in Mexico; emperor with divine right, polytheistic, own arithmetic, some human sacrifices

nation-state

a sovereign state tied to a culture closely

three-sister farming

agriculture by natives with maize, squash, and beans

caravel

small vessel that sailed close to wind; portuguese and spanish; Europeans on African shores

Colombian Exchange

transfer of goods, crops, and disease between the old and new world after 1492

Treaty of Tordesillas

1494: between Spain and Portugal; divided new world territory, Spain won the most but Portugal got more lands in Asia/ Africa

capitalism

an economic system based on private property and free enterprise

Encomienda

Spanish system to give colonists native people in return to convert them to Christianity

Pueblo Revolt

1680: native rebellion driving Spanish settlers to New Mexico

Huguenots

French protestants who got toleration by catholics because of the Edict of Nantes

coureurs de bois

French fur trap traders in the New World

Protestant Reformation

a religious movement of the 16th century to reform the catholic church; caused England to have a later start to exploration

Spanish Armada

Spanish fleet in 1588 to invade England that failed; start of the Spanish downfall

Jamestown

Virginia joint-stock company gave a charter to send 100 men to find gold and a gateway to the Indies

1st Anglo-Powhatan War

1614: De La Warr's troops raided native land and burned houses/ crops->peace settlement with Pocahontas and John Rolfe's marriage

2nd Anglo-Powhatan War

1644: natives try to rid settlers (fail)->peace treaty in '46 dividing native vs white land

Iroquois Confederacy

bounded together 5 native nations in NY; specialized European traders and fur suppliers; strong (took over rivals) but called bc European wars; matriarchal; longhouses

Elizabeth I

made Britain protestant which started the rivalry with Catholic Spain, victory against Spanish Armada->strong gov w nationalism, literature, sea dominance

Sir Walter Raleigh

tried to make Roanoke colony before Jamestown but failed and disappeared

James I

gave the charter to the Virginia Company to start Jamestown by the James River

John Smith

British settler in Jamestown who said that colonists who don't work don't eat

Pocahontas

daughter of Powhatan who was used to mark peace between colonizers and natives

John Rolfe

British settler in Jamestown who brought tobacco and married Pocahontas

Lord De La Warr

turned around the ship fleeing Jamestown and forced them to continue; caused conflict with natives that started the 1st Anglo-Powhatan War

Maryland Act of Toleration 1649

passed by a local representative assembly to have more peace between Catholics and Protestants, but death penalty for non-Christians

House of Burgesses

representative self-government in 1619 that ended in 1624 because King James I distrusted not being a full royal colony

Barbados Slave Code

1661, codes in the West Indies that gave slaves no rights and made them entirely under the control of their master

English Civil War

1640s, puritan soldier Oliver Cromwell was champion and he be headed King Charles I and ruler and Charles II took over

squatters

newcomers without legal rights to soil

puritans

English Protestant who wanted to purify the Church of England of catholic corruption

separatists

puritans that were unhappy that the Church of England allowed all of the king's subjects, so they vowed to break away

conversion

the process of making someone switch their religion

Mayflower Compact

1620, pilgrims made contract to form a crude government and to submit to the majority's will for the Massachusetts Bay Colony

John Winthrop

first governor of Massachusetts that helped the colony prosper

Roger Williams

extreme Separatist who questioned the government in Massachusetts and was banished for dangerous opinions, formed Rhode Island

Anne Hutchinson

woman in Massachusetts who questioned the Puritan ideology and was banished

Dominion of New England

1686, Sir Edmund Andros put in charge over New England and New York/Jersey (disliked); Navigation Acts; colonial defense against natives

Navigation Laws

James II made acts that removed competition for trade in the colonies

salutary neglect

the King/England ignoring the colonies as long as they continue to make money

Quakers

very liberal pacifists (many in Pennsylvania) who refused to support the Church of England through taxes