AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY VOCABULARY UNIT 1: THINKING GEOGRAPHICALLY

Abiotic

*(Non-living)-Composed of nonliving or inorganic matter: Example: Water is abiotic

Absolute Distance

Exact measurement of the physical space between two places.Example: The miles that separate two places

Absolute Location

The exact location of a place of an object on the earth usually described by global coordinates.Example: An address (zip code, city, state, etc.)

Acculturation

*The process of changes in culture that result from meeting of two groups, each of which retains distinct culture features (to one's advantage).Example: A German student lives in America, and he speaks English in America but German to his friends and family back in Germany

Assimilation

*The process by which a group's cultural features are altered to resemble those of another more dominant group.Example: Children were forced to cut their hair, speak English, and offer Christian prayers as a result of Americans assimilating Native Americans

Behavioral Geography

*The study of the psychological basis for individual human actions in space.Example: People's decision-making in regards to spatial perceptions

Biotic

*(Living)-Composed of living organisms.Example: Animals and plants

Cartogram

A special kind of map that distorts the shapes and sizes of countries or other political regions to present some specific statistic.Example: Maps that are distorted in order to convey a variable. A cartogram of the countries with the highest population, would show that China is the largest of all, (india close behind)

Cartography

*The science of making maps.Example: An updated, detailed map of the world

Cartographic Scale

The way the map communicates the ratio of its size to the size of what it represents.Example: The distance of the natural world, contrasted to the information on a map

Choropleth Map

A thematic map that uses tones or colors to represent data.Example: Maps that provide information through the use of shades and different colors

Climate

*The long-term weather condition at a particular location.Example: (What we expect) It might snow in December

Concentration

*The spread of something over a given area.Example: Where most things and people can be found over a given area

Conservation

*The sustainable management of a natural resource.Example: Reducing the amount of fish being caught

Contagious Diffusion

*The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population.Example: TikTok challenges, memes, trends (Clothes, shoes, hairstyles)

Cultural Ecology

*A geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships.Example: The ways that Humans treat their environment (Forest, Beach, Air)

Cultural Landscape

*An approach to geography that emphasizes the relationships among social and physical phenomena in a particular study area.Example: Creation of buildings, artwork, religious buildings, and monuments

Culture

*The body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group's distinct tradition.Example: Different foods, celebrated holidays, Languages, and holidays

Density

*The frequency with which something exists within a given unit of areaExample: The number of houses per square mile

Diffusion

*The process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time.Example: The spread of (diseases, technology, religions) from one place to another

Distance Decay

*The diminished importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.Example: If the distance between two places increases, then so does the interaction (grocery stores, friends, relatives)

Distribution

*The arrangement of something across Earth's surface.Example: The distribution of people and dogs in a neighborhood

Dot Distribution Map

*A map where dots are used to demonstrate the frequency or intensity of a particular phenomenaExample: Used to show the specific location and distribution of something across the territory of the map. Each dot represent a specified quantity.

Ecology

*The scientific study of ecosystemsExample: The study of ecosystems (Forest, Aquatic, Grassland ecosystems)

Ecosystem

*A group of living organisms and the abiotic spheres with which they interactExample: Food chains (how organisms interact in different environments)

Environmental Determinism

*---(Study of how the environment determines human activity)--- A nineteenth- and early twentieth-century approach to the study of geography that argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in the physical sciences. Geography was therefore the study of how the physical environment caused human activities.Example: If you were stranded on the beach, the chances are that you would be eating more fish and seafood than a person living in the desert

Expansion Diffusion

*The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in an additive processExample: Baseball has spread throughout the world (especially the Dominican Republic), yet stayed strong in the United States, where it was founded

Formal Region (or uniform region)

*An area in which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristicsExample: California is considered the Golden State because of the gold rush during the mid-1850s

Functional Region (or nodal region)

*An area organized around a node or focal pointExample: A city, reception of a TV/Radio

Geographic Information Science (GIScience)

*The development and analysis of data about earth acquired through satellite and other electronic information technologies.Example: Explores/analyzes geographic data

Geographic Information System (GIS)

*A computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes, and displays geographic data.Example: Computer system that collects data by satellites to research the earth/ super advanced electronic map (LAYERS IT ON A MAP)

Geographic Scale

The scale at which a geographer analyzes a particular phenomenonExample: The distance on a map in relation to the real world (1 inch=1 mile)

Geotagging

*Identification and storage of a piece of information by its precise latitude and longitude coordinates.Example: Sharing locations through iMessage (and google maps)

Global Positioning System (GPS)

*A system that determines the precise position of something on Earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations, and receivers.Example: When (mom) drives to an unknown location like the beach she uses the GPS to guide her

Globalization

*Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope.Example: Many Amazon products are made outside of the United States (China for example), but then the third-party country ships the product to the United States to make a profit

Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)

*The time in the zone encompassing the prime meridian, or 0° longitudeExample: This time zone is in use during Standard time in: Europe, North America, Antarctica, and Africa

Hearth

*The region from which innovative ideas originateExample: New York, Los Angeles, ATLANTA, Chicago (RAP, style)

Hierarchical Diffusion

*The spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or placesExample: Michael Jordan's 1's (He was the only person wearing these shoes at the time because they were originally his shoes)

International Date Line

An arc that for the most part follows 180° longitude, although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing land areas. When the International Date Line is crossed heading east (toward America), the clock moves back 24 hours, or one entire day. When it is crossed heading west (toward Asia), the calendar moves ahead one day.Example: International date line shows when each calendar day starts/time in different places around the globe.

Isoline Map

A thematic map with lines that connect points of equal value.Examples: Map that shows lines which lines join points (indicating elevation)

Latitude

*The numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe and measuring distance north and south of the equator (0°)Example: These lines run east/west, but measure the distance North/South. The Equator is on this imaginary line.

Location

*The position of anything on Earth's surface.Example: where you are right now. Los Angeles is located in California.

Longitude

*The numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance east and west of the prime meridian (0°)Example: Imaginary lines that run North-South, but measure East/West meeting at the poles.

Map

*A two-dimensional, or flat, representation of Earth's surface or a portion of itExample: A visual representation of an area

Map scale

*The relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature on Earth's surface.Example: relationship between map and real world

Mashup

*A map that overlays data from one source on top of a map provided by a mapping serviceExample: combining of different sets of data.

Mental Map

*A representation of a portion of Earth's surface based on what an individual knows about a place, containing personal impressions of what is in the place and where places are locatedExample: A description of what a person seen- point of view

Mercator Projection

A map that correctly represents true distance everywhere on earth but distorts areas of land masses relative to each othe.Example: A map that gives reliable distances

Meridian

*An arc drawn on a map between the North and South poles.Example: A location that can be found on lines of longitude

Network

*A chain of communication that connects places.Example: The internet or triangular trade between 3 different ports

Nonrenewable resource

*Something produced in nature more slowly than it is consumed by humans.Example: Coal, natural gases

Parallel

*A circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians.Example: Imaginary line/circle around the world

Pattern

*The geometric or regular arrangement of something in a particular area.Example: A pattern of numbers: 1,2,3,4,5

Place

*A specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular characteristic.Example: My house is a place

Polder

*Land that the Dutch have created by draining water from an area.Example: Land reclaimed by water.

Possibilism

*The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives.Example: People climbing Mt. Everest

Preservation

The maintenance of resources in their present condition, with as little human impact as possibleExample: Preserving the environment

Prime Meridian

*The meridian, designated at 0° longitude, which passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England.Example: Located at 0* on Longitudinal lines

Projection

A system used to transfer locations from Earth's surface to a flat map.Example: 3-D surface of the Earth to 2-D surface of a map.

Proportional Symbol Map

Type of map that uses a symbol in varying sizes to show the magnitude of a statistical valueExample: Uses symbols to represent important information

Region

*An area distinguished by a unique combination of trends or features.Example: Asia, North America, Europe

Relative Distance

Relative distance is a type of measurement used in geography to describe the social, cultural, economic, and political relationships between two or more communities.Example: My house is an hour away from Disneyland

Relative Location

The position of a place in relation to another placeExample: My house is near Disneyland and Costco

Relocation Diffusion

*The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to anotherExample: Americans emigrating to China

Remote Sensing

The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods.Example: Data from a place from satellites

Renewable Resource

*Something produced in nature more rapidly than it is consumed by humansExample: Oxygen is a renewable resource. It is produced in nature more rapidly than it is consumed by humans

Scale

*Generally, the relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole.Example: The Earth that is being studied compared to the Earth currently

Site

*The physical character of a placeExample: Where a city (LA or NYC) is located (exact)

Situation

*The location of a place relative to another place.Example: The skate park is near my house.

Space

The physical gap or interval between two objectsExample: The space in between RCHS and Los Osos

Space-time Compression

*The reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place, as a result of improved communications and transportation systemsExample: Communication between people that help bring them closer despite being far away (phones)

Spatial Association

The relationship between the distribution of one feature and the distribution of another feature.Example: To create a rainforest, water (rain) and heat (weather) must be present. These three things have a relationship in common, and because of this relationship, they end up in a similar space.

Stimulus Diffusion

*The spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected.Example: Pizza has changed dramatically. From Italy to the United States. This is an example of things from culture, changing dramatically as they spread to different cultures.

Sustainability

*The use of Earth's renewable and nonrenewable natural resources in ways that do not constrain resource use in the future.Example: The amount of trees that are cut down, animals that are hunted (especially endangered species)

Syncretism

*The combining of elements of two groups into a new cultural featureExample: Blending of different cultures, creating something new (Chicano-Japanese culture, Mexican pizza)

Toponym

*The name given to a portion of Earth's surface.Example: The name given to a place on Earth (North America, China, Rancho Cucamonga)

Topography

The arrangement of the natural and artificial physical features of an area.Example: Study and description of the physical feature of an area (rivers, mountains, valleys)

Uneven Development

The increasing gap in economic conditions between core and peripheral regions as a result of the globalization of the economy.Example: The United States is more developed than Africa

Vernacular Region (or perceptual region)

*An area that people believe exists as part of their cultural identityExample: The stereotype of tacos belonging to Mexico

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