PSY 260 ch 1


A way of thinking or feeling about a target that is often reflected in a person's behavior. Examples of attitude targets are individuals, concepts, and group


Attitude A way of thinking or feeling about a target that is often reflected in a person's behavior . Examples of attitude targets are individuals , concepts , and groups .


The psychological process of being sexually interested in another person . This can include , for example , physical attraction , first impressions , and dating rituals .

Blind to the research hypothesis

When participants in research are not aware of what is being studied .


Changing one's attitude or behavior to match a perceived social norm .

Culture of honor

A culture in which personal or family reputation is especially important .


Discrimination is behavior that advantages or disadvantages people merely based on their group membership .

Fundamental attribution error

The tendency to emphasize another person's personality traits when describing that person's motives and behaviors and overlooking the influence of situational factors .


A possible explanation that can be tested through research .

Levels of analysis

Complementary views for analyzing and understanding a phenomenon .

Need to belong

A strong natural impulse in humans to form social connections and to be accepted by others .


Responding to an order or command from a person in a position of authority .

Observational learning

Learning by observing the behavior of others .


An evaluation or emotion toward people based merely on their group membership .


The act of exchanging goods or services . By giving a person a gift , the principle of reciprocity can be used to influence others ; they then feel obligated to give back .

Research confederate

A person working with a researcher , posing as a research participant or as a bystander .

Research participant

A person being studied as part of a research program .

Social attribution

The way person explains the motives or behaviors of others .

Social cognition

The way people process and apply information about others .

Social influence

When one person causes change in attitude or behavior in another person , whether intentionally or unintentionally

Social psychology

The branch of psychological science that is mainly concerned with understanding how the presence of others affects our thoughts , feelings , and behaviors .


A mental process of using information shortcuts about a group to effectively navigate social situations or make decisions

Stigmatized group

A group that suffers from social disapproval based on some characteristic that sets them apart from the majority .

Conceptual Replication

A scientific attempt to copy the scientific hypothesis used in an earlier study in an effort to determine whether the results will generalize to different samples , times , or situations . The same or similar - results are an indication that the findings are generalizable


An actor working with the researcher . Most often , this individual is used to deceive unsuspecting research participants . Also known as a " stooge .

Exact Replication

also called Direct Replication ) A scientific attempt to exactly copy the scientific methods used in an earlier study in an effort to determine whether the results are consistent . The same - or similar - results are an indication that the findings are accurate .

Falsified data faked data )

Data that are fabricated , or made up , by researchers intentionally trying to pass off research results that are inaccurate . This is a serious ethical breach and can even be a criminal offense .


The process by which exposing people to one stimulus makes certain thoughts feelings or behaviors more salient .

Sample Size

The number of participants in a study . Sample size is important because it can influence the confidence scientists have in the accuracy and generalizability of their results .


repeating the same research to gather data

. In this form , a scientist attempts to exactly recreate the scientific methods used in conditions of an earlier study to determine whether the results come out the same

direct replication

Exact replications

tell us whether the original findings are true at least under the exact conditions tested

Conceptual replications

the conditions help confirm whether the theoretical idea behind the findings is true and under what conditions these findings will occur

Examples of Non replications in Psychology

is the use of spatial distance cues to prime people's feelings of emotional closeness to their families I results often will not replicate

replicate Solutions to the Problem : Archives attempted replications studies and whether replication was achieved .

Center for Open Science

psychology Open Science Framework where replications can be reported

Solutions to the Problem

registered replications of studies with the overall results published in Perspectives on Psychological Science

Solutions to the Problem

Perspectives Public Library of Science

The Replication Index

Replication the so " R Index is a statistical tool for estimating the replicability of studies of journals and even of specific researchers

Autobiographical reasoning

The ability , typically developed in adolescence , to derive substantive conclusions about the self from analyzing one's own personal experiences .

Big Five

adulthood and encompassing the categories of ( 1 ) extraversion vs. introversion , ( 2 ) neuroticism vs. emotional stability , ( 3 ) agreeable vs. disagreeableness , ( 4 ) conscientiousness vs. nonconscientiousness , and ( 5 ) openness to experience vs. conventionality . By late childhood and early adolescence , people's self - attributions of personality traits , as well as the trait attributions made about them by others , show patterns of intercorrelations that confirm with the five - factor structure obtained in studies of adults .


Sigmund Freud's conception of an executive self in the personality . Akin to this module's notion of " the I , " Freud imagined the ego as observing outside reality , engaging in rational though , and coping with the competing demands of inner desires and moral standards .


Sometimes used synonymously with the term " self , " identity means many different things in psychological science and in other fields ( e.g. , sociology ) . In this module , I adopt Erik Erikson's conception of identity as a developmental task for late adolescence and young adulthood . Forming an identity in adolescence and young adulthood involves exploring alternative roles , values , goals , and relationships and eventually committing to a realistic agenda for life that productively situates a person in the adult world of work and love . In addition , identity formation entails commitments to new social roles and reevaluation of old traits , and importantly , it brings with it a sense of temporal continuity in life , achieved though the construction of an integrative life story .

Narrative identity

An internalized and evolving story of the self designed to provide life with some measure of temporal unity and purpose . Beginning in late adolescence , people craft self - defining stories that reconstruct the past and imagine the future . explain how the person came to be the person that he or she is becoming .

Redemptive narratives

Life stories that affirm the transformation from suffering to an enhanced status or state . In American culture , redemptive life stories are highly prized as models for the good self , as in classic narratives of atonement , upward mobility , liberation , and recovery .


The idea that the self reflects back upon itself ; that the I ( the knower , the subject ) encounters the Me ( the known , the object ) . Reflexivity is a fundamental property of human selfhood .

Self as autobiographical author

The sense of the self as a storyteller who reconstructs the past and imagines the future in order to articulate an integrative narrative that provides life with some measure of temporal continuity and purpose .

Self as motivated agent

The sense of the self as an intentional force that strives to achieve goals , plans , values , projects and the like .

Self as social actor

terms f more or less consistent self - ascribed traits and social roles .

Self - esteem

The extent to which a person feels that he or she is worthy and good . The success or failure that the motivated agent experiences in pursuit of valued goals is a strong determinant of self esteem .

Social reputation

The traits and social roles that others attribute to an actor . Actors also have their own conceptions of what they imagine their respective social reputations indeed are in the eyes of others .

The Age 5 - to - 7 Shift

Cognitive and social changes that occur in the early elementary school years that result in the child's developing a more purposeful , planful , and goal - directed approach to life , setting the stage for the emergence of the self as a motivated agent .

The " I

The self as knower , the sense of the self as a subject who encounters ( knows , works on ) itself ( the Me ) .

The " Me

The self as known , the sense of the self as the object or target of the I's knowledge and work .

What does self as an autobiographical author emphasis?

The strong effect of culture on narrative indenting

The self is essentially


Who said the self is what happpens when I reflects upon me ?

William james

What broad three psychological categories might you reflect upon to improve one's self?

Social actor, a motivated agent, or an autobiographical author

True or False: humans evolve to live in social groups


True or False: humans strive to get ahead in the prescience of others


When does the social actor begin to emerge


When do humans begin to develop a sense of I or me , express social emotions

Toddler years

When is a key development year? Creating ones ego


What was Erikson argument in 1963 about ones ego and when it develops

Experiences of trust and interpersonal attachment in the first year of life helps to consolidate the autonomy of the ego in the second

What is treat terms and what do they convey

Trait terms capture perceived consistency in social performance, they convey what i reflexively perceive to be my overall acting style, based in part on how i think others see me as an actor in many social situations

True or False; observes can fully understand what is in the actors head at any givEn time as long as they watch closely

False; we can never fully know

What seems to give the self behavior direction and purpose?

Inner needs , wants, diaries, Gail's, values, fears and aversions

True or False; to be an agent is to act with direction and purpose


True or False; to change yourself your are summing the role of a motivated agent


Is it easier for an adult or child to reconstruct their past