Individuals and households that buy or acquire goods and services for personal consumption make up the ________. A.market offeringB.market mixC.subcultureD.social classE.consumer market
Marketing stimuli include which of the following? A.cultural stimuliB.social stimuliC.economic stimuliD.technological stimuliE.price stimuli
Which of the following is one of the other stimuli present in a buyer's environment apart from a marketing stimuli? A.price stimuliB.product stimuliC.promotion stimuliD.place stimuliE.cultural stimuli
E.why they buy
Companies can research many aspects of buying decisions. However, the one that is the most difficult to identify is ________. A.how and how much they buyB.when they buyC.where they buyD.what consumers buyE.why they buy
A.buyer's decision process
According to the model of buyer behavior, which of the following is one of the two primary parts of a "buyer's black box"? A.buyer's decision processB.buyer's spending habitsC.technological stimuliD.promotion stimuliE.social stimuli
Marketing stimuli consist of the four Ps. Which of the following is NOT one of these?EA.placeB.priceC.productD.promotionE.packeging
In the model of buyer behavior, which of the following is NOT a major type of force or event in the buyer's environment? A.socialB.politicalC.technologicalD.economicE.Cultural
D.the "why" regarding the responses
Buyer responses are influenced by marketing stimuli. The responses to the stimuli include all of the following EXCEPT ________. A.brand engagementB.buying attitudesC.buying preferencesD.the "why" regarding the responsesE.purchasing behavior
The starting point of understanding how consumers respond to various marketing efforts is called the stimulus-response model of buyer behavior.
Consumers can easily explain what influences their purchases.
Each culture contains smaller ________, or groups of people with shared value systems based on common life experiences and situations. A.monoculturesB.social networksC.subculturesD.reference groupsE.cultural universals
Subcultures include nationalities, religions, geographic regions, and ________. A.income levelsB.racial groupsC.professionsD.agesE.Genders
Which consumer group tends to show more brand loyalty and make shopping a family event, with children having a big say in the purchase decision? A.working class consumersB.middle class consumersC.Hispanic AmericansD.Arab AmericansE.African Americans
_______ consumers are one of the fastest-growing U.S. population subsegments and are expected to surge to nearly one third of the total U.S. population by 2060. A.MillennialB.Baby BoomerC.Asian AmericanD.African AmericanE.Hispanic American
Hispanic Americans tend to be deeply family oriented and make shopping a family affair. Older consumers are brand loyal, while younger Hispanics have shown increasing price sensitivity and willingness to choose store brands. Hispanic Americans make up a ________. A.subcultureB.social networkC.lifestyleD.social classE.life-cycle stage
Although more price-conscious than other population segments, ________ consumers tend to be strongly motivated by quality and selection, and give importance to brands. A.African American B.working classC.lower upperD.Asian American E.Filipino
consumers are the most affluent U.S. demographic segment and are expected to have an annual buying power approaching $1 billion by 2017. A.Asian AmericanB.Generation XC.Hispanic AmericanD.African AmericanE.Baby boomers
_______ consumers are the most brand conscious of all the ethnic groups, are extremely brand loyal, and shop frequently. A.Asian AmericanB.African AmericanC.Native AmericanD.Hispanic AmericanE.Italian American
A.total market strategy
Many companies use ethnically specific themes in their mainstream marketing strategy because marketers have realized that insights gleaned from ethnic consumers can influence their broader markets. This type of marketing is known as ________. A.total market strategyB.word-of-mouth marketingC.buzz marketingD.life-style marketingE.social networking
_______ are society's relatively permanent and ordered divisions whose members share similar values, interests, and behaviors. A.Universal culturesB.Social networksC.Reference groupsD.Social classesE.Societal norms
Consumer purchases are influenced strongly by characteristics that marketers cannot control but must take into account, including cultural, social, psychological, and ________ characteristics. A.economicB.professionalC.geneticD.medicalE.Personal
B.Social classes show distinct product and brand preferences in areas such as clothing and travel.
Which of the following statements is true of cultural factors that influence consumer behavior? A.Subcultures are groups within which each individual has a unique and distinct value system.B.Social classes show distinct product and brand preferences in areas such as clothing and travel.C.Hispanic Americans and African Americans are examples of racially-segregated groups and not subcultures.D.Subcultures include nationalities and racial groups, but exclude religions.E.Cultural influences on buying behavior are identical across countries.
C.People within a social class tend to exhibit similar buying behavior.
Which of the following statements is true of social classes? A.Income is the single factor that determines social class. B.Members of a social class have unique and distinct values, interests, and behaviors.C.People within a social class tend to exhibit similar buying behavior.D.Social classes are society's temporary divisions.E.Social classes universally exhibit identical product and brand preferences.
E.Social classes show distinct product preferences in clothing and automobiles.
Which of the following statements is true regarding social classes in the United States? A.Social class is determined by income alone.B.Wealth is more critical than education level in measuring social class.C.People are relegated to a permanent social class in the United States.D.Lines between social classes in the United States are fixed and rigid.E.Social classes show distinct product preferences in clothing and automobiles.
Family is one of the ________ factors that influence consumer behavior. A.psychologicalB.businessC.regionalD.socialE.Personal
______ are groups to which an individual wishes to belong, as when a young basketball player hopes to play someday for the Los Angeles Lakers. A.Membership groupsB.SubculturesC.Leading adoptersD.Aspirational groupsE.Reference groups
A shoe manufacturing company uses ads featuring the members of a country music band with the hope that the band's fans will see them wearing the company's shoes and hence purchase the same brand of shoes. The shoe company believes that the band portrays the image of a ________ to the band's fans. A.reference groupB.lifestyleC.membership groupD.subcultureE.status symbol
Word-of-mouth influence comes to consumers from family, colleagues, and ________. A.athletesB.friendsC.entertainment celebritiesD.investorsE.Neighbors
Rachel loves fashion and is always seen wearing the trendiest fashion outfits. She actively shares her knowledge with a wide group of friends and colleagues about where to shop for the latest fashion at great deals. Most of her friends and colleagues follow her fashion tips. Rachel portrays the image of a(n) ________. A.brand personalityB.surrogate consumerC.opinion leaderD.lagging adopterE.social networker
________ are people within a reference group who, because of special skills, knowledge, personality, or other characteristics, exert influence on others. A.Stealth marketersB.Lagging adoptersC.Opinion leadersD.Surrogate consumersE.Innovators
Opinion leaders are also referred to as ________. A.lower uppersB.influentialsC.innovatorsD.surrogate consumersE.lagging adopters
______ are ambassadors who share their passion for a company's products with large circles of friends and acquaintances in return for insider knowledge and other rewards. A.Leading adoptersB.InnovatorsC.Surrogate consumersD.Market mavensE.Brand evangelists
Companies that use brand ambassadors are most likely involved in ________ marketing. A.viralB.database C.buzz D.spamE.Ambush
Facebook, Snapchat and LinkedIn are all examples of ________. A.early adoptersB.opinion leadersC.social networksD.market mavensE.brand alliances
Which of the following is characteristic of online social networks? A.use of one-way communication techniquesB.negligible adoption ratesC.guaranteed positive resultsD.easy methods to measure resultsE.user-controlled content
A.good fit with the brand
Independent bloggers are self-made influencers. Traits that make them relevant to marketers include ________. A.good fit with the brandB.creative writing skillsC.professional Web siteD.technological skillsE.a few vocal followers
What is the most important consumer buying organization in society? A.membership groupB.familyC.subcultureD.reference groupE.social class
_______ traditionally has been considered the main purchasing agent for the family in the areas of food, household products, and clothing, although this is changing as more work outside the home. A.The parentB.The couple togetherC.A teenagerD.The wifeE.The husband
A ________ consists of the activities an individual is expected to perform according to the people around him/her. A.motiveB.perceptionC.life cycleD.roleE.Lifestyle
A buyer's decisions are influenced by ________ such as the buyer's age and life-cycle stage, occupation, economic situation, lifestyle, personality, and self-concept.A.psychographicsB.attitudesC.stereotypesD.perceptionsE.personal characteristics
Consumer information provider Nielsen uses a life-stage segmentation system that places U.S. households into one of 66 different life-stage groups. According to Nielsen's groups, which of the following refers to the group consisting of hip, single twenty-somethings who are politically liberal, listen to alternative music, and enjoy lively nightlife? EA.Striving SinglesB.Young InfluentialsC.Young DigeratiD.Bohemian MixE.Young Achievers
Life-stage changes usually result from ________. A.siblingsB.friendsC.mentorsD.life-changing eventsE.Birthdays
Life-stage segmentation allows marketers to create targeted, actionable, and ________ campaigns based on how people consume and interact with brands. A.social mediaB.inexpensiveC.multimediaD.personalizedE.Professional
Since a person's economic situation will affect her store and product choices, marketers watch trends in spending, personal income, interest rates, and ________.A.employmentB.rentsC.savingsD.home purchasesE.fuel prices
_______ is a person's pattern of living as expressed in his/her psychographics, and it includes the individual's activities, interests, and opinions. A.Social classB.PersonalityC.CultureD.MotiveE.Lifestyle
In the context of the AIO dimensions for measuring consumers' lifestyles, "A" stands for ________. A.associationsB.attitudesC.activitiesD.admirationsE.Achievements
The latest trend in the United States involves rediscovering the benefits of home-cooked food and the use of organic ingredients. People are choosing to spend hours in the kitchen using only the freshest ingredients to cook healthy and nutritious meals. This change in ________ is one of the reasons for the increasing demand for organic ingredients. A.lifestyleB.personalityC.subcultureD.life-cycleE.self-concept
_______ refers to the unique psychological characteristics that distinguish an individual or group. A.PerceptionB.BeliefC.PersonalityD.Self-awarenessE.Attitude
Which of the following terms refers to a specific mix of human traits that may be attributed to a particular brand? A.brand conceptB.brand equityC.brand personalityD.brand identityE.brand perception
Shoez Inc., a manufacturer of shoes, has recently launched a brand of sturdy shoes ideal for hiking and other outdoor activities. Which of the following brand personalities could be best associated with the new brand? A.sophisticationB.sincerityC.excitementD.ruggednessE.Competence
C.buy products to support their self-image
Many marketers use the self-concept premise that people's possessions contribute to and reflect their identitieslong dashthat is, "we are what we consume." According to this premise, consumers ________. A.rarely identify with brand personalitiesB.conduct primary researchC.buy products to support their self-imageD.are affected by opinion leaders E.compare product brands
Harley-Davidson promotes its motorcycles with images of independence, freedom, and power. Harley-Davidson has created a ________. A.self-actualization needB.brand personalityC.life-cycle stageD.self-conceptE.Motive
A marketer of women's hair care products targeting Chinese customers created an advertising message that told women their hair could be worn any way they wanted as opposed to wearing it straight. The message suggested the women did not need to conform to the mainstream media definition of beauty. It is most accurate to say that this ad was based on an understanding of customers' ________. A.self-concept B.roleC.social classD.life-cycle stageE.Status
A person's buying choices are influenced by four major psychological factors. Which of the following is NOT one of these factors? A.perceptionB.motivationC.beliefs D.learningE.Association
A ________ is a need that is sufficiently pressing to direct a person to seek satisfaction. A.cultureB.traditionC.motiveD.perceptionE.Stimulus
According to Freud, a person's buying decisions are primarily affected by ________.A.subconscious motives B.family influencesC.brand imagesD.societal expectationsE.cultural norms
Many marketers now use ________ research to dig deeply into consumer psyches and develop better marketing strategies. A.experientialB.descriptiveC.interpretiveD.analyticalE.Causal
_______ refers to qualitative research designed to probe consumers' hidden, subconscious motivations. A.Subliminal analysisB.Motivation researchC.Perception analysisD.Market segmentationE.Need recognition
C.interpretive consumer research
A marketing research company asked members of a focus group to describe several brands as animals. The purpose of the request is to measure the prestige of the various brands. This is an example of ________. A.brand extensionB.buzz marketingC.interpretive consumer researchD.quantitative researchE.brand strength analysis
Maslow's theory is that ________ can be arranged in a hierarchy. A.human needsB.marketing stimuliC.decisionsD.personal beliefs E.Perceptions
Which of the following is NOT part of Maslow's hierarchy of needs? A.esteem needsB.physiological needsC.spiritual needsD.social needsE.safety needs
According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, which of the following is the LEAST pressing need? A.safety needsB.self-actualization needsC.physiological needsD.social needsE.esteem needs
_______ is the process by which people select, organize, and interpret information to form a meaningful picture of the world. A.PerceptionB.DissonanceC.MotivationD.Self-actualizationE.Learning
People cannot focus on all of the stimuli that surround them each day. A person's tendency to screen out most of the information is called ________. A.cognitive inertiaB.cognitive dissonanceC.selective attentionD.selective distortionE.subliminal retention
People tend to interpret new information in a way that will support what they already believe. This is called ________. A.selective attentionB.selective distortionC.selective retentionD.cognitive dissonanceE.cognitive bias
_______ means that consumers are likely to remember good points made about a brand they favor and forget good points made about competing brands. A.Cognitive biasB.Cognitive dissonanceC.Selective attentionD.Selective retentionE.Selective distortion
Mark has long supported a particular brand of footwear and has always bought that brand. Recently, the footwear manufacturer was embroiled in a controversy for using child labor at its manufacturing plants. Mark doubts the news reports and continues to purchase the same brand of footwear. It is most accurate to say that Mark displays ________. A.selective distortionB.consumer ethnocentrismC.selective attentionD.selective retentionE.cognitive dissonance
Juana looked at the September issue of her favorite fashion magazine and did not find anything particularly interesting despite the fact that the magazine had several advertisements that were targeted at Juana's demographic. The only thing that interested her was an article about an upcoming fashion show. Which consumer behavior is being illustrated in this instance? A.selective attentionB.social loafingC.consumer ethnocentrismD.subliminal advertisingE.Groupthink
Stephanie and John wanted to purchase a high-end sports car. They viewed a commercial for a particular sports car that highlighted the cost, design, and power of the car. After viewing the ad, Stephanie felt that the car's price was acceptable, considering the superior and unique design. John thought that the car was expensive owing to the high power engine installed in it. They used the information in different ways, focusing on issues that that each considered important. Which of the following concepts does this scenario demonstrate? A.cognitive dissonanceB.consumer ethnocentrismC.selective distortionD.selective retentionE.selective attention
Some consumers worry that they will be affected by marketing messages without even knowing it. They are concerned about ________. A.cognitive dissonanceB.selective communicationC.alternative evaluationD.subliminal advertisingE.selective retention
________ describes changes in an individual's behavior arising from experience. A.Cognitive dissonanceB.PerceptionC.LearningD.LifestyleE.Selective attention
________ are minor stimuli that determine where, when, and how a person responds to an idea. A.DrivesB.ReinforcersC.ImpulsesD.CognitionsE.Cues
A(n) ________ is a descriptive thought that a person has about something. A.motiveB.beliefC.lifestyleD.cognitionE.Attitude
A(n) ________ is a person's relatively consistent evaluations, feelings, and tendencies toward an object or idea. A. attitudeB.lifestyleC.motiveD.beliefE.Perception
Subcultures consist only of religious groups.
Asian American consumers are the least brand conscious of all ethnic groups
Social class is based on shared value systems and common life experiences and situations
In the United States, the lines between social classes are not fixed and rigid, but people can only drop to a lower social class and not move up into a higher one.
Online social networks represent an important avenue to create buzz for marketers.
Children exert little influence on family buying decisions.
A person's occupation has no effect on the goods and services that she buys
People's tastes in food, clothes, recreation, and event furniture remain unchanged as they age
Personality is a person's pattern of living as expressed in his or her psychographics
A brand personality is the specific mix of human traits that may be attributed to a particular brand.
According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, when the most important need is satisfied, it will cease to be a motivator, and the person will then try to satisfy the next most important need.
Alternative evaluation is the process by which people select, organize, and interpret information to form a meaningful picture of the world.
While an individual's beliefs are difficult to change, an individual's attitudes are easy to change.
A.complex buying behavior
When consumers are highly involved with the purchase of an expensive product and they perceive significant differences among brands, they most likely will exhibit ________. A.complex buying behaviorB.variety-seeking buying behaviorC.dissonance-reducing buying behaviorD.consumer ethnocentrismE.consumer capitalism
C.complex buying behavior
George is buying his first house. He has spent a month looking at houses and comparing attributes such as price and location. He has contacted several real estate agents to look at different types of houses. George is most likely exhibiting ________.A.consumer capitalismB.marketing myopiaC.complex buying behaviorD.dissonance-reducing buying behaviorE.variety-seeking buying behavior
C.dissonance-reducing buying behavior
When consumers are highly involved with an expensive, infrequent, or risky purchase but see little difference among brands, they most likely will exhibit ________.A.impulse buying behaviorB.consumer capitalismC.dissonance-reducing buying behaviorD.complex buying behaviorE.habitual buying behavior
C.dissonance-reducing buying behavior
For the past ten years, Bill and Margaret have saved money to go to the Super Bowl should their team, the Chicago Bears, reach the finals of the NFC championship. This is the year, and several tour companies offer attractive, but very similar, packages to the game. Since all packages are pretty much the same, they have chosen one that fits their budget. Bill and Margaret are most likely exhibiting ________. A.consumer capitalismB.habitual buying behaviorC.dissonance-reducing buying behaviorD.consumer ethnocentrismE.complex buying behavior
E.habitual buying behavior
Which of the following consumer buying behaviors is related to conditions of low-consumer involvement and little significant brand difference? A.consumer capitalismB.variety-seeking buying behaviorC.dissonance-reducing buying behaviorD.complex buying behaviorE.habitual buying behavior
Pat thought he had received the best deal on his new car. Shortly after the buying the car, Pat started to notice certain disadvantages of his new car as he learned more about other cars available in the market. Pat is experiencing ________. A. complex buying behaviorB.dissonance-reducing buying behaviorC.postpurchase dissonanceD.marketing myopiaE.need recognition
A.stress unique features in ads
Which of the following would a marketer LEAST likely do to encourage habitual buying behavior? A.stress unique features in adsB.dominate shelf spaceC.keep shelves fully stockedD.run frequent reminder ads E.offer lower prices and coupons
C.dissonance-reducing buying behavior
Eduardo usually purchases the same breakfast cereal, the kind he grew up eating. Eduardo exhibits ________. A.complex buying behaviorB.variety-seeking buying behaviorC.dissonance-reducing buying behaviorD.habitual buying behaviorE.conspicuous consumption behavior
C.conspicuous consumption behavior
Carrie tends to purchase various brands of bath soap. She has never been loyal to a specific brand; instead she does a lot of brand switching. Carrie exhibits ________.A.complex buying behaviorB.habitual buying behaviorC.conspicuous consumption behaviorD.variety-seeking buying behaviorE.dissonance-reducing buying behavior
D.variety-seeking buying behavior
When customers have low involvement in a purchase but perceive significant brand differences, they will most likely engage in ________. A.consumer ethnocentrismB.habitual buying behaviorC.complex buying behaviorD.variety-seeking buying behaviorE.dissonance-reducing buying behavior
The buyer decision process consists of five stages. Which of the following is NOT one of these stages? A.purchase decisionB.need recognitionC.conspicuous consumptionD.postpurchase behaviorE.information search
The buying decision process starts with ________, in which the buyer spots a problem. A.information searchB.need recognitionC.buyer's remorseD.alternative evaluationE.impulse purchases
An invitation to go skiing over the weekend forced Donna to look at her current wardrobe. She realized that she required a warmer coat. Which of the following stages of the buyer decision process does Donna exemplify? A.product evaluation B.information search C.problem screening D.need recognition E.situational analysis
Donna wants to buy a new coat. During the ________ stage of the buyer decision process she will ask her friends to recommend stores that sell good quality winterwear clothing. She will also go through newspapers and magazines to look out for offers and sales on coats. A.need recognitionB.alternative evaluationC.product evaluationD.purchase decisionE.information search
E.an information search
If a consumer's drive is strong and a satisfying product is near at hand, the consumer is likely to purchase the product at that time. If not, the consumer may store the need in memory or undertake ________. A.a need recognitionB.consumer ethnocentrismC.cognitive dissonanceD.buyer's remorseE.an information search
James has decided to buy a new vehicle. His brother John has recently purchased a new truck and recommends the same model to James. James finally decides to buy the same truck. Which of the following sources of information has most likely influenced James' purchase decision? A.commercial sourcesB.market mavensC.personal sourcesD.public sourcesE.experiential sources
John has decided to buy a particular smartphone that he saw reviewed online. Which of the following sources of information has most likely influenced John's purchase decision? A.public sourcesB.market mavensC.commercial sourcesD.laggardsE.personal sources
Marketers realize that their commercial sources ________ the buyer. A.attractB.personalize products toC.informD.evaluate productsE.legitimize products
The information sources that are the most effective at influencing a consumer's purchase decision are ________. These sources legitimize or evaluate products for the buyer. A.publicB.attitudinalC.personalD.experimentalE.Commercial
Marketers describe the way a consumer processes information to arrive at brand choices as ________. A.alternative evaluationB.impulse buyingC.information searchD.consumer capitalismE.cognitive dissonance
D.evaluation of alternatives
Robert has taken up cycling as a hobby and as a way to maintain his physical fitness. He wants to buy a hydration system since he will need a lot of water as he cycles. Having gathered a great deal of information, he has finally narrowed down his choices to three systems: Waterbags for Roadies, Supertanker Hydropacks, and Fast Water. Robert is in the ________ stage of the buyer decision process. A.postpurchase evaluationB.information searchC.product trialD.evaluation of alternatives E.need recognition
Sara is about to purchase a new television. She is using several attributes to evaluate her choices. Which of the following is least likely to be a criterion Sara is using?A.network connectivityB.availabilityC.priceD.size of screenE.color of body
D.attitudes of others
Generally, the consumer's purchase decision will be to buy the most preferred brand, but two factors can come between the purchase intention and the purchase decision. Which of the following is one of these factors? A.cognitive dissonanceB.alternative evaluationC.economic risksD.attitudes of othersE.buyer's remorse
After the purchase of a product, consumers will be either satisfied or dissatisfied and engage in ________. A.postpurchase behaviorB.consumer capitalismC.information searchesD.consumer ethnocentrismE.alternative evaluation
The relationship between the consumer's expectations and the product's ________ determines whether the buyer is satisfied or dissatisfied with a purchase.A.perceived performanceB.consumer marketC.market shareD.market reachE.brand personality
A particular automobile company works to keep its customers happy after each sale, aiming to delight each one of them in order to increase their customer lifetime value. Which of the following steps of the buyer decision process does the company exemplify? A.evaluation of alternativesB.need recognitionC.postpurchase behaviorD.information searchE.purchase decision
Leona bought two different brands of wine from vineyards in Australia. When asked for her opinion about the wines, she said that one brand of wine tasted like alcoholic grape juice, but the other had a crisp taste that she really enjoyed. These statements were most likely made during the ________ stage of the buyer decision process. A.alternative evaluationB.purchase decisionC.need recognitionD.postpurchase behaviorE.information search
Almost all major purchases result in ________, or discomfort caused by postpurchase conflict. A.conspicuous consumptionB.cognitive dissonanceC.consumer capitalismD.need recognitionE.consumer ethnocentrism
When a customer feels uneasy about losing out on the benefits of a brand not purchased, she is likely to experience ________. A.selective distortionB.selective retentionC.cognitive dissonanceD.consumer ethnocentrismE.selective attention
Store salespeople and a consumer's friends rarely impact someone's final purchase decision.
Dissonance-reducing buying behavior typically occurs when a buyer sees little difference among brands but is highly involved with the purchase.
Jim is planning on buying an expensive HDTV and he realizes that there are few differences between brands. Jim is displaying complex buying behavior
Habitual buying behavior involves consumers searching extensively for information about brands and evaluating brand characteristics
Commercial sources of information typically legitimize and evaluate products for buyers
Postpurchase behavior is the stage of the buyer decision process in which consumers take further action after purchase, based on their satisfaction or dissatisfaction.
Consumers learn about new products for the first time and make the decision to buy those products during the ________. A.evaluation processB.quality assessment stageC.need recognition stageD.adoption processE.trial process
Which of the following is the first stage in the new product adoption process? A.interestB.evaluationC.awarenessD.adoptionE.Trial
Which of the following is the adoption process stage at which the consumer considers whether trying the new product makes sense? A.trialB.evaluationC.adoptionD.interestE.Awareness
Cameron loves to own and be up-to-date on the latest technological gadgets available in the market. Among his friends, he is always the first to own the latest electronic gadgets. He loves trying out new products before others. Cameron most likely belongs to the ________ adopter group. A.surrogate consumerB.late mainstreamC.lagging D.early mainstreamE.Innovator
Five characteristics are important in influencing an innovation's rate of adoption. Which of the following is NOT one of those characteristics? A. communicabilityB.complexityC.consumabilityD.compatibilityE.relative advantage
In the context of product characteristics that influence the rate of adoption, ________ refers to the degree to which the innovation fits the values and experiences of potential consumers. A.compatibilityB.communicabilityC.complexityD.relative advantageE.Divisibility
Which of the following product characteristics refers to the degree to which the innovation appears superior to existing products? A.divisibilityB.communicabilityC.relative advantageD.compatibilityE.Complexity
B.It is the degree to which the innovation may be tried on a limited basis.
Which of the following best describes divisibility of an innovation that influences the rate of adoption? A.It is the degree to which the innovation is difficult to understand.B.It is the degree to which the innovation may be tried on a limited basis.C.It is the degree to which the results of using the innovation can be observed or described to others.D.It is the degree to which the innovation fits the values and experiences of potential consumers.E.It is the degree to which the innovation appears superior to existing products.
Relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, divisibility, and communicability are all characteristics of ________. A.the degree of buyer involvementB.unexpected situational factorsC.postpurchase behaviorsD.alternative evaluationsE.a product's rate of adoption
Abel is considering whether or not to get an e-reader. He has read online reviews of three different kinds of readers and has talked with two friends who own e-readers. Abel is at the awareness stage of the new product adoption process.
The adoption process for new products refers to the mental process through which an individual passes from first learning about an innovation to final adoption.
People differ greatly in their readiness to try new products. In each product area, there are "consumption pioneers," also referred to as lagging adopters.
Early adopters are opinion leaders in their communities. They adopt new ideas early but carefully
Early mainstream adopters accept new ideas after the average person.
Ed purchased electronic devices such as a smartphone, and tablet after many people he knew already owned the devices. Ed belongs to the adopter group called lagging adopters.
Viviana wants to be the first to own the new fashion style of shoes. Viviana is an early mainstream adopter.
Two of the characteristics that are especially important in influencing an innovation's rate of adoption are relative advantage and compatibility.
Compared to the mainstream buying public, Hispanic consumers tend to be deeply __________ oriented, making this a special characteristic and behavior. A.promotionB.incomeC.familyD.qualityE.Brand
According to the stimulus-response model of buyer behavior, marketing and other stimuli enter the consumer's __________ and produce certain responses. A.cultural shiftsB.subcultureC.black boxD.curiosityE.Behavior
C.Individuals and households that buy goods and services for personal consumption
Which of the following correctly defines the consumer market? A.Consumers and the businesses that sell to themB.Consumers who spend more than $5000.00 yearly on goods and servicesC.Individuals and households that buy goods and services for personal consumptionD.Manufacturers, resellers, and consumersE.Consumers and the resellers who consumers buy their products from
C.The buyer's characteristics and the buyer's decision process
According to the model of buyer behavior, what are the two parts of a buyer's black box? A.Cultural forces and marketing stimuliB.Purchase behavior and cultural forces.C.The buyer's characteristics and the buyer's decision processD.The 4 Ps and social forces.E.The buyer's attitudes and preferences and the buyer's purchase behavior
D.economic, technological, social, and cultural forces
Stimuli in the buyer's environment includes ________. A.the 4 Ps, social factors, and purchase behaviorB.buyer's characteristics and buyer's decision processesC.brand engagement and relationshipsD.economic, technological, social, and cultural forcesE.the 4 Ps and buying attitudes and preferences
A.brand choice, purchase location and timing, and brand engagement and relationship behavior
Forces and events in the buyer's environment enter the buyer's black box, where they are turned into a set of buyer responses. These buyer responses include __________. A.brand choice, purchase location and timing, and brand engagement and relationship behaviorB.the buyer's decision process and the buyer's characteristicsC.the buyer's characteristics and purchase behaviorD.the buyer's attitudes and preferences and the buyer's decision process and purchase behaviorE.the buyer's attitudes and preferences, purchase behavior, and marketing stimuli
A.Consumers are often unaware of what influences their purchases.
Which of the following statements is correct regarding consumer buying decisions?A.Consumers are often unaware of what influences their purchases.B.A buyer's characteristics such as age and income have little influence on buying decisions.C.Marketers are interested in what and where consumers buy, but not how much they buy.D.The easiest part of studying buying decisions is determining the whys behind consumer buying behavior.E.The consumer buying decision process is of little interest to marketers.
Consumer purchases are influenced strongly by certain characteristics which include all of the following except __________. A.cognitiveB.psychologicalC.socialD.culturalE.Personal
Consumer motivation, perception, and learning are related to the __________ factors influencing consumer behavior. A.subculturalB.psychologicalC.socialD.personalE.Cultural
E.Small groups, social networks, family, social roles, and status
. ________ are the social factors that influence consumer buyer behavior. A.Culture, subculture, and social classB.Personality, self-concept, and lifestyleC.Age and lifecycle stage and lifestyleD.Motivation, perception, learning, beliefs, and attitudesE.Small groups, social networks, family, social roles, and status
B.subculture and family
Some of the cultural factors that influence buyer behavior include _____. A.social class and familyB.subculture and familyC.subculture and social classD.subculture, small groups, and social networksE.subculture, beliefs, and attitudes
E.Age and lifecycle stage, lifestyle, economic situation, occupation, and personality and self-concept
Which of the following correctly identifies the personal factors that influence consumer buyer behavior? A.Motivation, beliefs and attitudes, perception, and learningB.Subculture, lifestyle, economic situation, and age and lifecycle stageC.Occupation, economic situation, lifestyle, family, and social classD.Age and lifecycle stage, occupation, economic situation, lifestyle, and motivationE.Age and lifecycle stage, lifestyle, economic situation, occupation, and personality and self-concept
The statements, "I only buy the best" and "The Japanese make the best cars in the world," represent ________. A.drivesB.physiological needsC.attitudesD.motivesE.Perceptions
E.Culture, subculture, and social class
What are the three cultural factors that influence consumer buyer behavior? A.Culture, family, and lifestyleB.Culture, social class, and lifestyleC.Culture, subculture, and lifestyleD.Culture, subculture, and familyE.Culture, subculture, and social class
According to the text, what is the most basic cause of a person's wants and behaviors? A.CultureB.IncomeC.LifestyleD.OccupationE.Personality
B.Asian Americans are the most affluent U.S. demographic segment.
Which of the following statements regarding American subcultural groups is correct? A.African American consumers are price conscious, so they are less motivated by quality and selection.B.Asian Americans are the most affluent U.S. demographic segment.C.Brands are of little importance to African American consumers.D.Hispanic culture is homogenous and does not have subcultures within it.E.Hispanics are generally not family oriented.
B.Small groups, social networks, family, and social roles and status
Which of the following correctly identifies the social factors that influence consumer buyer behavior? A.Family, social networks, social class, and subcultureB.Small groups, social networks, family, and social roles and statusC.Small groups, social networks, social class, and subcultureD.Small groups, family, social class, and lifestyleE.Small groups, social networks, family, and social class
B.Cultural characteristics, social characteristics, personal characteristics, and psychological characteristics
What are the four general characteristics that influence consumer purchases? A.Economic characteristics, technological characteristics, demographic characteristics, and political characteristicsB.Cultural characteristics, social characteristics, personal characteristics, and psychological characteristicsC.Cultural characteristics, social characteristics, demographic characteristics, and the buyer decision processD.Cultural characteristics, technological characteristics, social characteristics, and personal characteristicsE.Technological characteristics, social characteristics, personal characteristics, and the buyer decision process
A purse company's ads feature the cast of a popular reality show. Product sales increase significantly among the fans. From the fans' viewpoint, the cast is a(n) __________. A.subcultureB.social networkC.membership groupD.opinion leaderE.reference group
Which of the following is a personal factor that influences a consumer's buying behavior? A.LearningB.Social classC.OccupationD.FamilyE.Motivation
C.Consumers tend to buy brands whose personality matches their own.
Which of the following statements is correct regarding the influence of personal factors on buyer behavior? A.The concept of lifestyle is too complex to be of use to marketers.B.Marketers have found that it is not useful to define target markets in terms of life-cycle stage.C.Consumers tend to buy brands whose personality matches their own.D.A person's occupation does not affect the goods they purchase.E.The PRIZM segmentation system primarily classifies households based on their interest in social networks.
A.Motivation, perception, learning, and beliefs and attitudes
What are the four major psychological factors that influence consumer buyer behavior? A.Motivation, perception, learning, and beliefs and attitudesB.Perception, learning, lifestyle, and social rolesC.Motivation, perception, learning, and personalityD.Motivation, learning, personality, and self-conceptE.Perception, learning, beliefs and attitudes, and personality
__________ behavior occurs when consumers are highly involved with an expensive, infrequent, or risky purchase but see little difference among brands. A.Complex buyingB.Post-purchaseC.Dissonance-reducing buyingD.Habitual buyingE.Variety-seeking buying
C.Under conditions of low-consumer involvement and little significant brand difference
When does the habitual buying behavior occur? A.When consumers recognize that there is a problemB.When there is low consumer involvement but significant perceived brand differencesC.Under conditions of low-consumer involvement and little significant brand differenceD.When consumers are highly involved with an expensive, infrequent, or risky purchaseE.When consumers recognize that there is a need
C.Low involvement and significant differences between brands
Variety-seeking behavior would result from which of the following conditions? A.High involvement and significant differences between brandsB.Low involvement and few differences between brandsC.Low involvement and significant differences between brandsD.Buyers do not engage in variety seeking behavior.E.High involvement and few differences between brands
B.search for information
In the buyer decision process, after a consumer has recognized a need, he or she will next ________. A.make a purchase decisionB.search for informationC.form a purchase intentionD.experience cognitive dissonanceE.evaluate alternatives
When consumers engage in ________ buying behavior, they go through a learning process, so it is most important that marketers understand information gathering and evaluation behavior. A.complexB.dissonance-reducingC.variety-seekingD.habitualE.low-involvement
A.Satisfaction is determined by the relationship between the consumer's expectations
What determines whether a buyer is satisfied or dissatisfied with a purchase? A.Satisfaction is determined by the relationship between the consumer's expectationsand the product's perceived performance.B.Whether or not the buyer experienced cognitive dissonanceC.How others feel about the purchaseD.The amount of information gathered in the decision processE.The number of alternatives considered in the purchase decision
B.High involvement and few differences between brands
Dissonance-reducing buying behavior would result from which of the following conditions? A.High involvement and significant differences between brandsB.High involvement and few differences between brandsC.Low involvement and significant differences between brandsD.Any buying situation with significant differences between brandsE.Low involvement and few differences between brands
D.In these types of purchases marketers often use price and sales promotion as incentives for purchas
Which of the following statements regarding habitual buying behavior is correct?A.In these types of purchases buyers are highly committed to one brand.B.In these types of purchases buyers search extensively for information.C.In these types of purchases buyers carefully weigh their choices.D.In these types of purchases marketers often use price and sales promotion as incentives for purchasE.In these types of purchases buyers see significant differences between brands.
C.Need recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, the purchase decision, and postpurchase behavior
What is the correct order of the five stages in the buyer decision process? A.Information search, evaluation of alternatives, need recognition, the purchase decision, and postpurchase behaviorB.Need recognition, the purchase decision, information search, evaluation of alternatives, and postpurchase behaviorC.Need recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, the purchase decision, and postpurchase behaviorD.Evaluation of alternatives, information search, need recognition, the purchase decision, and postpurchase behaviorE.Information search, need recognition, evaluation of alternatives, the purchase decision, and postpurchase behavior
What tends to be the most effective source of information when consumers make a buying decision? A.The InternetB.Personal sourcesC.AdvertisementsD.Mass mediaE.Salespeople
D.unexpected situational factors
Two things can come between the intention to make a purchase and the actual purchase: the first is the attitudes of others and the second is __________. A.permission from othersB.too many choicesC.lack of informationD.unexpected situational factorsE.poor decision-making skills
B.The relationship between consumer expectations and perceived product performance
What determines if a buyer is satisfied or dissatisfied with a purchase? A.Whether or not they experience cognitive dissonanceB.The relationship between consumer expectations and perceived product performanceC.The number of alternatives considered in the purchase decisionD.The amount of information gathered in the decision processE.How others feel about the purchase
D.Consumers may, in some situations, skip steps in the buyer decision process.
Which of the following statements regarding the buyer decision process is correct?A.The buyer decision process consists of four stages.B.Consumers go through all stages of the buyer decision process for every purchase situation.C.Consumers tend to take the same amount of time going through the stages of the buyer decision process.D.Consumers may, in some situations, skip steps in the buyer decision process.E.The nature of the product has no effect on the buyer decision process.
B.there are five stages
In the product adoption process, __________. A.consumers respond based on product characteristicsB.there are five stagesC.consumers respond depending on their characteristicsD.consumers respond at different ratesE.consumers are innovators
The first group marketers try to bring their new products to the attention to are potential __________. A.lagging adoptersB.early mainstreamC.late mainstreamD.early adoptersE.Innovators
_______ is the first stage in the new product adoption process. A.TrialB.AwarenessC.AdoptionD.EvaluationE.Interest
Which adopter group is skeptical and adopts a new product only after a majority of people have tried it? A.Late mainstreamB.Early adoptersC.Lagging adoptersD.Early mainstreamE.Innovators
B.Innovators and early adopters
Which of the following correctly identifies the first two adopter groups that adopt a new product? A.Early adopters and early mainstreamB.Innovators and early adoptersC.Innovators and laggard adoptersD.Early mainstream and late mainstreamE.Late mainstream and laggard adopters
Five characteristics are important in influencing an innovation's rate of adoption. As ________ increases, the rate of adoption is slower. A.CompatibilityB.CommunicabilityC.Relative advantageD.ComplexityE.Divisibility
A.Awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, adoption
What is the correct order of the five stages of the new product adoption process?A.Awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, adoptionB.Awareness, interest, trial, evaluation, adoptionC.Awareness, evaluation, interest, trial, adoptionD.Awareness, interest, trial, adoption, evaluationE.Interest, awareness, evaluation, trial, adoption
A.Innovators and early adopters
People can be classified into adopter categories. Which two categories are the first to adopt a new product idea? A.Innovators and early adoptersB.Early adopters and the early mainstreamC.Early adopters and lagging adoptersD.Early mainstream and the late mainstreamE.Innovators and the early mainstream
Which adopter category consists of opinion leaders who adopt new ideas early but carefully? A.Lagging adoptersB.Early mainstreamC.Late mainstreamD.Early adoptersE.Innovators
Which of the five characteristics identified in the text has an inverse relationship with an innovation's rate of adoption? As this characteristic increases, the rate of adoption is slower. A.CompatibilityB.CommunicabilityC.ComplexityD.DivisibilityE.Relative advantage