Geog week 2

A population experiences ______________ when the number of births exceeds the number of deaths.

Natural Increase

A positive rate of natural increase indicates that the death rate is higher than the birth rate and there is a natural decrease in the population.


A pro-natalist population control policy involves incentives to promote population growth.


Across the developing world, children are considered an economic investment because they will be able to work and contribute to the family's income.


All of the following are basic dimensions of geodemography except:

technological advances

Although poorer countries often have high death rates, having a high death rate does not necessarily mean that a country is less developed.


An age-dependency ratio of 100 means that the working-age population is larger than the age-dependent population.


An anti-natalist population control policy involves incentives to limit population growth.


Chronic and lifestyle diseases are leading causes of mortality in developing countries, whereas infectious diseases cause a higher proportion of deaths in developed countries.


Favorable conditions or attributes of a place that attract migrants are known as:

pull factors

Figure 3.5 in your textbook shows that life expectancy varies between countries, but ____________ has the lowest life expectancies of any continent.


Geodemographers use the ________________ to determine the number of years it takes a population to double.

rate of natural increase

In migration studies, the process by which immigrants develop and cultivate ties to more than one country is known as:


Men have slightly longer life expectancies than women.


Out of concern that explosive population growth would undermine the country's development, the government in this country began to promote smaller families in the 1980s.


People younger than ________ and older than _________ are termed age dependents because most of them do not work on a full-time basis.

15, 65

Persons born between 1946 and 1964 in the United States represent which generation?

baby boomers

Physiological density refers to the number of people per unit area of land, while arithmetic density refers to the number of people per unit area of arable land.


Population growth in Europe is being fueled by natural increase, not by immigration.


Studies now indicate that literacy is linked to delays in marriage and childbirth, as well as higher rates of teen pregnancy.


The ______________ describes a shift from infectious to chronic diseases as lifestyle changes associated with urbanization and industrialization occur.

epidemiological transition

The average number of children a woman is expected to have during her childbearing years, given current birth rates, is known as:

Total fertility rate

The death rate cannot tell us about the quality of life or health in a country.


The higher the _____________, the greater the pressure that a population exerts on land that is used for agriculture.

phsiological density

The southern European country with the highest net migration rate in 2010 was Spain.


These three regions are regions of net immigration:

North America, Europe, Oceania

Three world regions that are experiencing net migration are: - __________, ___________, and ____________

Asia, Africa, Latin America

To calculate population doubling time, you divide the number 70 by the rate of natural increase.


To calculate the physiological density of your state, you would ________.

Divide the state s population by the area of arable land in the state

To calculate the rate of natural increase, geodemographers subtract the death rate from the birth rate and convert that figure to a percentage.


Today, no country has a death rate in excess of 21 per 1000.


Unfavorable conditions or attributes of a place that encourage migration are known as:

push factors

What are the two most often cited reasons for the global decline in fertility?

Improved standards of living and the education of more women.

What is a population cartogram?

A map that shows the size of a country in proportion to is population

What is arable land?

land that can be used for agriculture

What stage of the epidemiological transition is most associated with deaths from a resurgence of infectious disease?

Stage 3

When the total fertility rate (TFR) is ______, a population is said to be at the replacement level.


Which country is the leading source of immigrants to the United States?


Which of the following is most responsible for some of the high death rates in the African countries of Lesotho and Sierra Leone?

Because of the ongoing AIDS epidemic and poor access to medical care

Which of the following was not part of Malthus s argument?

People would not voluntarily control and lower fertility

Which stage of the demographic transition model has the most rapid rate of population growth?


Women dominate the flow of migrants from ______________, ______________, and ______________.

the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Indonesia

________________ reject the idea of a human carrying capacity for Earth, and consider people to be the most valuable resource.


A language family is:

a collection of languages that share a common but distant ancestor.

A majority of the world s languages are directly associated with the functions of a state.


A particular variety of a language characterized by distinctive vocabulary, grammar, and/or pronunciation is a ____________.


A place or region where an innovation, idea, belief, or cultural practice begins is a:


A situation in which one language becomes comparatively more powerful than another language is known as:

linguistic dominance

A situation in which one language becomes comparatively more powerful than another language is considered linguistic dominance.


A system of communication based on symbols that have agreed-upon meanings is known as:


A toponym is a place name.


A well-known example of an artificial language is:


A word that originates in one language and is incorporated into the vocabulary of another language is a ______________.


A(n) __________is one that a country formally designates for use in its political, legal, and administrative affairs.

official language

Accents __________.

can serve as markers of personal or social identity

All countries have an official language.


Almost half of the world s people speak languages belonging to the____________ language family.


Although no equivalent word exists in the English language, the Yiddish word farpotchke, means to make something worse when you are trying to fix it. This is an example of:

How social factors influence language use and development.

Among geographers and linguists a prevalent, though controversial, theory posits that the rise of __________ transformed the distribution of the world s languages and language families.


An example of a language from the Austronesian language family is:


An official language is one that:

a country formally designates for use in its political, legal, and administrative affairs.

Beginning in the 1950 s, government officials in China selected Cantonese as the country s official language.


Creolization __________.

refers to the process by which a pidgin language develops in to a first language describes the practice of creating and changing toponyms

Esperanto is an example of an artificial language.


Find the false statement about language extinction.

Of the world s regions Europe is experiencing very high rates of language extinction.

Find the false statement about pidgin languages.

They are the native language of people who live in multilingual communities.

Geographers and linguists can pinpoint the exact date of the birth of language.


Hebrew is an example of a language from the language family:


Historically, the diffusion of the Arabic language has been closely associated with the diffusion of Islam.


It is generally understood that there are about___________ different languages in the world today.


Language hotspots exist when three indices converge: high language endangerment, high linguistic diversity, and languages that are poorly documented.


Languages that have emerged and evolved within living or historic human communities are called:

natural languages

People who speak Serbian can also understand Croatian, and vice versa even though Serbian and Croatian are considered separate languages. This is an example of mutual intelligibility.


Scholars think that the Indo-European language family may have originated in a region in:


Sign language is universal.


Sign languages are based on:

body movement

Some artificial languages have been designed for the purpose of creating a ___________, a language that could be understood and used by everyone in the world.

universal language

Some languages are so similar that they have a high degree of:

mutual intelligibility

Some linguists contend that Spanglish is a kind of code switching.


The Elvish languages featured in The Lord of the Rings would be an example of a(n):

artificial language

The English language belongs in the family.


The Indo-European language family has the widest geographical distribution.


The Kurgan Hypothesis ____________.

places the hearth of the Indo-European language family north of the Caspian Sea

The United Nations recognizes __________ official languages.


The ________ language family has the second most speakers of all the language families.


The geography of African American English______.

was initially southern but has become increasingly urban

The language family with the greatest number (aka diversity) of languages (not the number of speakers) is:


The norm or authoritative model of language usage is a standard dialect.


The pidgin language Tay Bok was used for communication between the French and the Vietnamese when Vietnam was a French colony.


The rise of the British Empire contributed to the diffusion of English.


There are now more English speakers outside than inside the United Kingdom.


Today, many Southerners use the word _________ to refer to any kind of soft drink as shown in Figure 4.18b.


Toponyms provide telling clues about our priorities, preferences, and cultural practices.


What do the words fajita, mesa, and rodeo have in common?

They are loanwords

What is surprising about the indigenous languages of Madagascar?

They probably diffused to Madagascar from Indonesia.

Which three languages are not Indo-European languages?

Mandarin Chinese, Arabic, Japanese

Within the Roman Empire two classes of Latin existed; the standardized written form came to be known as:

Classical Latin

Yoruba is part of the Afro-Asiatic language family.


A church with 2000 or more members that follows mainline or Renewalist Christian theologies is known as a megachurch.


A pilgrimage is always voluntary.


A pilgrimage, such as that depicted in Figure 5.11 in your textbook, is virtually absent in ____________ and most pronounced in _______________, which possesses an elaborate network of sacred pilgrimage sites.

Protestantism, Catholicism

A polytheistic religion refers to:

the belief in or devotion to multiple deities.

A religion that welcomes all people as potential adherents is __________.


According to the Hindu caste system, shown in Figure 5.14 in your textbook, members of a higher caste could become socially polluted just by nearness to _____________, who were associated with jobs believed to be unclean.


According to the beliefs of the Aboriginal inhabitants of Australia, the time when the Earth was transformed from a featureless and inactive realm into the world as we know it is known as

Dreamtime or Dreaming

After Mecca and Medina, Mount Sinai ranks the third holiest city in Islam.


An ethnic religion is a belief system that is worldwide in scope and welcomes all people as potential adherents.


An intellectual movement that encourages scientific thought, the expansion of knowledge, and belief in the inevitability of progress is known as:


Both Sunnis and Shiites use the term imam to refer to a religious leader, especially one who leads group prayer.


Buddhism requires that its adherents go on pilgrimage.


Christian fundamentalists are Renewalists and share the same beliefs about the Holy Spirit.


Christianity is the largest religion in the world, with an estimated number of adherents totaling:

2.3 billion

Civil religion __________.

relates religion to politics

Contagious, relocation, and hierarchical diffusion all factored in the spread of Christianity.


Cosmogonies __________.

may influence environmental perception

Diasporic religious communities provide a good example of how distinctive associations between religious communities and territory can develop.


Ethnic religions include Judaism, Hinduism, and Shintoism.


Find the false statement about Buddhism

Tantrayana Buddhism is closely associated with Japan

Geographer Ken Foote has demonstrated how sacred sites develop and gain significance within the context of civil religion through the study of:

landscapes and tragedy

Hindu, Buddhism, and Islam all emerged in the Indic hearth.


Historian Lynn White, Jr. addressed the relationship between:

Religion and Environment

In his discussion of religious ecology, which point did Lynn White make?

Judeo-Christian views contributed to environmental abuse

In the Hindu cosmogony, who is the supreme spiritual source and sustainer of the universe?


Israel is the only country in which a majority of the population is Jewish.


Muslims believe that the Torah records the word of God as it was revealed to Muhammad.


One of the goals of _________ was to create a religious and political homeland for Jews:


Religious fundamentalism_______.

means that religious principles guide all aspects of an adherent life

Sanatana dharma, meaning eternal truth, is the name some ___________ use for their religion


Sanctification refers to the making of a sacred site after a significant event has occurred there.


Scholars debate the status of ________________: some consider it a system of ethics or a civil religion, but not an institutionalized religion.


Secondary hearths are the places or regions where a religion fragments internally to form a new branch.


Shiites make up a majority of the population in all of these countries except:


Sikhism bears the influences of these two religions:

Islam and hinduism

Syncretic religions incorporate veneration of spirits or deities associated with natural features.


The Hindu caste system is hereditary, and children are born into the varna of their parents.


The Roman Catholic, Protestant, and Independent Church branches form the three conventional branches within Christianity


The Vedas identify four social classes called varnas, ranked on the basis of:


The creation of India and Pakistan in 1947 led to the division Sikhism's hearth, which is known as ______________?

The Punjab

The emergence of Sunni and Shia branches in Islam_________.

involved a dispute over Muhammad s successor

The fastest growing religion in the world is:


The roots of religious fundamentalism date to the European Enlightenment of the 1700s.


The scattering of a people through forced migration is known as:


The smallest of the major universalizing religions is:


Theravada Buddhists believe that the Buddha is a compassionate deity and that Theravada Buddhism provides a way for believers to be saved from the cycle of rebirth.


These religions are sometimes classified as Abrahamic faiths:

Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

This region constitutes the hearth of Christianity:


Traditionalists see the need for sharia to be flexible and open to different interpretations in order to apply in today's society.


Universalizing religions are closely associated with a key individual who established the religion.


Unlike universalizing religions, the origin of Hinduism is generally associated with the upper classes rather than the influence of one key individual.


What happens in a secondary religious hearth

a religion splits internally

What is renewalism?

It is the fastest growing branch within Christianity

Which is the only country where the majority of the population is Jewish?


Which movement sees the need for sharia to be flexible and open to different interpretations in order to apply in today's society?


Which of the following is not a characteristic of Islam?

Its sacred scripture is the Tripitaka.

Which of the following is not a universalizing religion?


Which of the following is not one of Islam's Five Pillars of Practice?

completing pilgrimage to Medina at least once

Which of the following is not true about Mahayana Buddhism?

It cultivates a monastic approach that emphasizes the study of Buddhist scripture and the practice of disciplined behavior.

Which of the following is not true about a sacred space?

It needs to be territorially defined.

Zionism is important to the geography of religion because__________.

it illustrates bonds between a religious groups and territory

_______________ is the fastest growing branch within Christianity.


_______________, _______________, and ____________ normally cremate the deceased.

Theravada Buddhists, Hindus, Sikhs