Psy 240 Midterm

Jung gyms, slides, and climbing equipment can help young children develop:

gross motor skills

According to life-span development expert Paul Baltes, which age period dominates development?

No single age group dominates development.

Baltes' assertion that development is contextual best fits with which developmental theory?


One implication of Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory is that to understand development one must:

consider the individual at different levels of life-span development.

If you believe that development occurs in stages and focus on cognitive development attempting to explain how children actively construct their own view of the world , then you personal theory is most similar to that of


Erikson's theory emphasizes which of the following aspects of human development?

Social and psychoanalytic emphasis.

According to the dynamic systems theory, how do infants develop motor skills?

Infants perceive something new in the environment that motivates them to act. They use their perceptions to fine-tune their movements.

When Doctor Jansen compares brain scans belonging to a 70-year old and a 50 year old, what might she see in the 70 year old?

More dendrites

According to Baltes, childhood and adolescence is marked by continuing growth, maintenance, and regulation, while adulthood and old age are characterized by:

slowing growth with an increase in maintenance and regualtion

While piaget emphasized biological aspects of development, vygotsky focuses on:

Social interaction

The information processing approach to development is mainly concerned with:

how people interpret and use knowledge to solve problems

During which of the following stages of prenatal development the basic structural design of the human brain is developed

first and second trimesters

The pigenetic view of development states that development is:

the result of an ongoing, bidirectional interchange between heredity and the environment.

Adolescents are often characterized as impulsive and emotional. This behavior may be due to immature development in which are of the brain

prefrontal cortex

A major contribution of behavior and social cognitive theories is their focus on:

environmental influences on behavior

To foster infants' motor development, infancy experts recommend which of the following?

giving infants opportunities fore exercise

Which of the following best describes the relationship between sensation and perception

Perception cannot occur unless sensation takes place first

The moror reflex is a response to_______, whereas the grasping reflex is a response to _______.

sound; touch

Three year olds scribble all over the page, but 4 year olds can make more precise drawings because 4 year olds have more developed:

fine motor skills

Brenda's grandmother is 83 years old. She most likely doesn't show much interest in her food because:

her sense of smell has declined

Walking takes more than leg strength gained through genetic maturation. In order to solve this biomechanical problem. infants are first motivated to walk and then must learn to stabilize balance and shift weight. What theory of development does this describe?

dynamic systems

Peak physical performance usually occurs during

the 20's

What mechanisms help infants survive before they have an opportunity to learn adaptive behavior


The cognitive process of accommodation occurs when individuals

adjust old schemes to fit new information

Vygotsky's theory states that children use speech not only to social communication but also for

problem solving

According to Vygotsky, the range of tasks that are too difficult for the child to master alone, but that can be learned with guidance and assistance, is:

the zone of proximal development

Younger children do not engage in the same type of egocentric thought as adolescents , because younger children

cannot think abstractly for from another's point of view

Which of the following BEST characterizes cognitive development according to Jean Piaget?

Children construct their own understandings about how the world works.

A child who understands that the amount of clay does not differ when it is stretched into a long strip or rolled into a large ball has grasped the concept of:


Monica rotates the presentation of her infant's toys every few weeks, because she doesn't want him to become bored or:


When working with young children, adults often provide assistance, instruction, and other support. As children demonstrate they can do more for themselves, Vygotsky recommends that adults begin to withdraw these supports. This demonstrates the concept of:


Object permanence is important because it means that infants are able to:

mentally represent objects

The information-processing approach to cognitive development is concerned mainly with

how people manipulate monitor, and manage information

Which of the following impacts an adolescent's decision to engage in risk taking behaviors

The presence of peersbeing emotionally arousedlack of life experience>>All of these

Some experts believe that children should not testify in court because:

they are susceptible to false suggestion

Which of the following enables conscious memories to improve throughout a child's second year?

maturation of the hippocampus and cerebral cortex in the brain

The cognitive process of assimilation occurs when individuals

Use their existing schemes to deal with new information or experiences

Contrary to Piaget's views, the development of formal operational thought is

significantly affected by culture

Behaviorist believe that language is:

a complex learned skill, much like dancing or playing the piano

Eighty year old Kathleen will show a steady decline in

working memory and processing speed

Language development during the adult years varies greatly among individuals depending on

level of education and social and occupational roles

According to Berninger, children who enter elementary school with a small vocabulary are at risk for developing:

reading problems

Which of the following provides evidence against the behavioral view of language development?

Children say new things that they haven't ever heard or said before.

Vocabulary continues to increase until

Late adulthood

A rapid increase in an infant's vocabulary that usually takes place between 18 and 24 months is known as:

vocabulary spurt

Marquessa is teaching her son to read by sounding out words and having him repeat them in storybooks she reads to him. What approach is she using?


The basic unit of sound in a language is a


Which language approach stresses that reading instruction should parallel a child's natural language learning?


_______ attention enables infants to learn about and remember characteristics of a new stimulus as it becomes familiar.


According to schema theory, people:

mold memories to fit information that already exists in their minds