urban sociology midterm

While only 9% of the world's population lived in cities in 1900, approximately what percent does today?

50%

Although cities began to emerge by 8000 B.C.E., they did not become the primary type (where as the majority of the population lived in them) of human settlement until:

313 C.E. ;; 10,000 years ago

Which of the following do Macionis and Parrillo suggest are good reasons for studying the city?

all of the above

Although historians have studied cities for centuries, in which of the academic disciplines listed below were cities first studied systematically?

sociology

When did urban sociology emerge as a separate field of study in North America, and who was its primary exponent?

The Industrial Revolution, Karl Marx

Early scholars of urbanization portrayed the city as:

a dangerous place where community and family were threatened

The area of study in which urbanists, who try to understand why cities are located in particular places, work is called:

. urban geography

The area of study in which urbanists, who try to understand why people disperse within cities the way they do, work is called:

urban ecology

The "Anatomy" of modern North American cities has been characterized by:

all of the above

Demographers suggest that the growth of exurbs results from:

the exodus of business and industry from central cities

According to the Macionis and Parrillo, the most important consequence of declining population growth in central cities for people who remain is:

less federal funding and political representation

By social structure, urbanists mean:

patterns of city life shaped by wealth and power disparities

Which of the following is (are) true concerning urban growth in a global context?

all of the above

Which of the factors listed below is (are) quality of urban life indicators?

all of the above

The oldest city known to archeologists emerged in human history:

10,000 years ago ;; Jericho

In 1994, the proportion of the world's population living in cities was

45 percent

According to archeologists, populations began to settle in fertile places

because of increased population density

The early settlements were characterized by:

a relatively complex division of labor

Jericho

all of the above

City-states

were found in Mesopotamia

The study of early urban settlements reveals

discontinuity and change in developmental patterns

Mesopotamia was characterized by

theocratic political regimes

The archeological record of Egyptian cities is less detailed due to

building materials

Egyptian cities were symbols of

the pharaohs' power

The ancient city of Moenjo-Daro

all of the above

The pattern of Chinese cities

is more diffused than in other areas

In Mesoamerica

at the beginning, only few people resided permanently in the cities

Greek cities

. all of that above

The Roman civilization was

based on the expression of militaristic power

Following the collapse of the Roman empire, cities in Europe

became smaller or disappeared

The revival of cities during the eleventh century is explained by:

all of the above

Renaissance humanists saw cities as

ideal places for human development

The city of Cracassonne in France includes all but which one of the following:

gridiron streets

The Black Plague

killed at least one-fourth of the European population

A demographic transition refers to:

the fact that birth rates remained high while death rates decreased dramatically

London emerged as:

a Roman outpost

London became a world city during the 16th century because of all but which of the following:

its infrastructure

Native Americans

had a few small permanent settlements

The first European settlement in North America was

St. Augustine in Florida

The early cities in the United States were characterized by

all of the above

Before the Revolutionary War, New York

attracted a significant number of Jewish and German immigrants

The American Revolution

was a city-instigated war

At the beginning of the Revolutionary war

urban settlements were concentrated on the East Coast

The growth of Baltimore was promoted by

both b and c

The urban growth of the early nineteenth century was primarily due to

the expansion of trade networks

The original U.S. settlers

saw cities as corrupting the good life

The North's victory in the Civil War announced

an explosion of urban industrial growth

The technological advances which promoted the growth of the "great metropolis" include all but which of the following:

the telephone

Between 1870 and 1920, cities grew

both upwards and outwards

Which demographic trends contributed to the increase in urban population:

both a. and c.

Politically speaking, the era of the "great metropolis" corresponds to

increasing pressures on city officials to represent people's interests

The industrialization of the city during the late 1800s

increased the profits of property owners

Between 1870 and 1920, the number of immigrants who arrived in the United States totaled

20 million

The Quota system, designed to limit foreign immigration to the United States,

. led to increased migration from the South to the North of the United States

The New Deal

all of the above

The period since 1950 has been characterized by

both b. and c.

A "Megalopolis

is a continuous urban region created by the sprawling of many independent cities

The Sunbelt expansion

was promoted by the higher labor and energy costs in Snowbelt cities

Problems in the Sunbelt cities include all but which of the following

inadequate infrastructure systems

Edward Banfield argues that

cities are doomed to disappear

The current revitalization of cities is due primarily to:

the desire of young professionals to live in an urban setting

The postindustrial era is characterized by

lower rents in gentrified neighborhoods

By 1800, the population of New York

was about 60,000

New York famous skyscrapers, the Chrysler and Empire State Buildings, and the Rockefeller Center opened

around 1930

Business Improvement Districts

provide services typically provided by city governments

What term is used to describe spread-out or low-density development beyond the edges of services and employment?

sprawl

Sprawl is most obvious and grows most spectacularly in the rapid growth areas of the:

South and West

Those seeking to curb sprawl base their concerns around four strategies. Which of the following is NOT one of these?

suburban relocation

Which of the following is NOT one of the most time squandered cities because of traffic congestion?

Columbus, OH

How does sprawl hurt cities?

all of the above

Oregon and Washington require all communities to make official designations in order to separate urban areas from their surrounding greenbelt of open lands, including farms, water sheds, and parks. These designations are called

urban growth boundaries

Some transit-oriented approaches for relieving traffic congestion focus on building more highway lanes using

smart corridors

Which of the following is NOT one of the proposed solutions to urban sprawl, as discussed in the text?

c. gentrification

____________ are new, sprawling, middle-class, automobile-dependent centers typically located at the fringe of older urban areas, at the intersections of major highways, where little except villages or farmland existed three decades earlier.

Edge cites

Who among the following identified over 200 new edge cities in the United States and Canada?

Garreau

The text points out that edge cities fall into one of three major categories. Which of the following is NOT one of these?

exurbs

The text discusses three edge city variations. Which of the following is NOT one of these?

Edge cities as mediator

In the United States, _____________ can be traced to the late 1800s, when upper-income gated developments in New York's Tuxedo Park and private streets in St. Louis sprang up, as wealthy citizens sought to "insulate themselves from the troublesome aspects of rapidly industrializing cities.

gated communities

How many gated communities now exist in the United States?

. 20,000

The text points out that gated communities fall into one of three categories. Which of the following is NOT one of these?

urban growth

Urban society emerged in the context of:

the industrial revolution in Europe

Sociology emerged with the work of:

Auguste Comte

According to Marx, social institutions are determined by

the economic system

The "Asiatic modes of production" refer to

an economic structure characterized by limited division of labor, common property and lack of individualism

The concept of "gemeinschaft" means

community

Which of the following characteristics is not part of Gesellschaft

kinship

Durkheim saw "organic solidarity" as

a social order based on a complex division of labor

Georg Simmel focused on

the social psychology of city life

According to Simmel, individual behavior in the city is dominated by:

rationality

The murder of Ms. Genovese illustrates

the cultivated indifference observed by Simmel

The comparative approach to urban sociology was promoted by

. Weber

According to Weber, the ideal city is characterized by:

all of the above

Authors in the classical European tradition all saw the city as

. increasing human choice b. characterized by a complex division of labor

Park's image of the city includes all but which of the following

a homogenous population

Compared to the classical European tradition, Parks' urban sociology

. is more empirical

According to Wirth, the large population size of cities creates

a need for the formal control structures

Modern researchers have shown that

. urban tolerance is a product of wealth and education

Suzanne Keller found that, in the private sphere, urbanites are

more social than in the public sphere

The positive relationship between density and pathological behavior

. appears to be linked to poverty and racial discrimination appears to be linked to poverty and racial discrimination

According to recent evidence, the city

all of the above

The image of a city, as defined by Kevin Lynch, is the

generalized mental picture of the city's external physical world

People form images of cities by

a. distinguishing between physical locations in the cityb. talking the others about what are the important landmarks

The five common elements in urban images according to Lynch are

districts, edges, landmarks, nodes, and paths

Stanley Milgram listed all of the following items as having an impact on how people draw their mental maps of a city except

socially recognized "important areas" of the city

Pedestrian traffic in the U.S. is characterized by all of the following except

people walk blindly into traffic

An urban network is

interpersonal ties

Elizabeth Bott found that working class spouses

. had a segregated marriage network while middle-class spouses had a joint one

Identifying with the city is aided by

all of the above help residents to identify with the city

Gerald Suttles argues that the images which people have about cities are

objective reality

Most urban poor try to cope with the harsh realities of life through

. forming social networks

Virginia Schein's single mothers on public assistance all

. were working or had some work experience

Carol Stack found in her study of poor African Americans that they

. punished those who refused to reciprocate in the mutual aid network

We make sense of the city by responding to its

. all of the above

We respond to the city

. all of the above

Geographic settings

interact with social factors to shape the city

The use of private automobiles in Los Angeles

all of the above

A look at the most populous North American metropolis suggests that:

the majority are located on waterways

The growth of the city of Houston in Texas

was promoted by its location on the Gulf of Mexico and its proximity to oil fields

For a setting to become a city, it must

have a minimally hospitable environment

The city of Las Vegas

. was made possible because of modern technology

The importance of defense

. explains the radio centric shape of many cities

Gridiron cities

. were typically built after the industrial revolution

The development of gridiron cities is due mostly to

economic factors

Vertical city growth

required new building technology

Urban ecology

all of the above

According to Park the shape of a city is

determined by competition and population movement

The invasion-succession movement refers to

the movement of social groups to different neighborhoods of the city

The concentric zone hypothesis suggests that

cities grow outward in a series of concentric rings over time

. What Burgess calls the zone in transition

consists primarily of light manufacture factories and ethnic neighborhoods

. Criticism of the Chicago School of Urban Ecolgy include all but which of the following

. is lacks a theoretical foundation

. The sector theory

. many residential districts take a pie-shape form rather than resembling an entire ring

. The multiple nuclei theory

. argues that as cities grow, they diversify and develop distinct sectors of activities

. A "social area

. consists of a census tract inhabited by people sharing a unique combination of social characteristics

. Social area analysis does not emphasize which of the following?

age of residents

Factorial analysis

all of the above

. In explaining urban land use patterns, factorial analysis emphasizes the importance of

. socioeconomic status, family status, and ethnicity

The synthesis theory of Berry and Rees suggests that:

. all earlier land-use theory were partially correct

. Edge cities

are typically located near major highways and shopping malls

The most dominant type of edge city found in North America fits in the category of

. boomers

According to political economists:

the distribution of wealth and power are important determinants of the shape of cities

The "new urban sociology

draws on Marxism

According to the Central Place Theory:

all of the above are true

Alonso's model suggests that:

as distance from the Central Business District increases, rents decrease

According to Valentine, the fact that poor African Americans paid significantly higher prices for their groceries than others illustrates

the fact that black residents often have limited choices regarding where to shop

Richard Fox's city types included all but which of the following:

. medieval cities

The structural context of the last decade include all but which of the following:

an increase in manufacture jobs

Henri Lefebvre

argues that urban development is a product of the capitalist economic system

In Lefebvre's theory, "abstract space

is the type of space considered by government and businesses

David Harvey's research:

. is based on Lefebvre's ideas about the second circuit of capital

According to David Harvey,

governments shape a city's use of space

Welfare capitalism

describe a market system where the government provides workers with subsidies

Castell's concept of the mode of development

a. is based on the similar Marxist concept of mode of production b. can be used to understand industrial growth in suburbs

The fact that many industries absorbed their competitors and formed oligopolies

a. illustrates horizontal integration

Vertical disintegration is linked to all but which of the following

increase in northeastern U.S. urban population

According to Logan and Molotch, urban growth coalitions

. focus on ways to increase profits and economic activities

In the United States, economic restructuring includes

a. a decline in the proportion of manufacturing jobs in overall employment b. a rise in entry-level jobs for lower-skilled workers