HD 475 exam 2

androgen insensitivity syndrome

a developmental condition in which cells do not respond to fetal androgen, so that chromosomal male (XY) fetuses develop external female genitals. There is also a feminization of later behavior patterns.


the presence of high frequencies of both masculine and feminine behaviors and traits in the same individual

anti-Mullerian hormone

secretion of the fetal testes that prevents further development of female structures from the Mullerian ducts

biological essentialism

a theory that holds that human traits and behaviors are primarily formed by inborn biological determinants such as genes and hormonal secretions, rather than by environmental influences


the process by which a sperm unites with an egg, normally joining 23 pairs of chromosomes to establish the genetic "blueprint" for a new individual. The sex chromosomes establish its sex: XX for female and XY for male

congenital adrenal hyperpasia

a genetic disorder that masculinizes chromosomal females and seems to lead to a masculinization of behavior as well

core gender identity

a child's early inner sense of its maleness, femaleness, or ambivalence, established prior to puberty


the region on the X-chromosome that seems to play a role in sexual differentiation

DHT-deficiency syndrome

a condition in which chromosomal male fetuses have underdeveloped male genitals and may be identified as girls at birth; however, at puberty they begin to develop masculine secondary sex characteristics, and seem to maintain masculine patterns of behavior

differential socialization

the process of treating boys and girls differently as they are growing up

dihydrotestosterone (DHT)

a chemical produced by the fetal testes that promotes further development of the testes, scrotum, and penis in the fetus

disorders of sex development(DSD)

a more scientific term now being applied to those with combinations or ambiguities of female and male anatomical structures

fetal androgenized females

a condition in which hormones administered during pregnancy caused chromosomal female (XX) fetuses to have masculinization of genital and perhaps of later behavioral patterns, even though they were raised as girls

gender dysphoria

another term sometimes used to describe a gender identity disorder

gender identity

a person's inner experience of gender: feelings of maleness, femaleness, or some ambivalent position between the two

gender identity disorder

the expression of gender identity in a way that is socially inconsistent with one's anatomical sex

gender role

the outward expression of gender identity in a way that is socially inconsistent with one's anatomical sex

gender schema

a complex cognitive network of associates and ideas through which the individual perceives and interprets information about gender


sex and reproductive glands, either testes or ovaries, that produce hormones and, eventually, reproductive cells (sperm or egg)

H-Y antigen

a biochemical produced in an embryo when the Y chromosome is present; it plays a role in the development of fetal gonads into testes


a tendency to exaggerate characteristics typically associated with femininity


a tendency to exaggerate manly behaviors, sometimes called machismo


a combination of female and male anatomical structures so that the individual cannot be clearly defined as male or female

Mullerian ducts

embryonic structures that develop into female sexual and reproductive organs unless inhibited by male hormones

multiplier effect

the combination of biological and socioenvironmental factors more and more with one another in the process of human development


a person who posses either testes or ovaries in combination with some external genitals of the other sex

social constructionism

a theory that holds that human traits and behaviors are shaped more by environmental social forces than by innate biological factors

secondary sex characteristics

the physical characteristics of mature women and men that begin to develop at puberty

sexual differentiation

the developmental processes-biological, social, and psychological-that lead to different sexes or genders


the sex-determining region of the Y chromosome


a crossing of traditional gender lines because of discomfort and nonconformity with gender roles generally accepted by society


a strong degree of discomfort with one's identity as male or female, characterized by feelings of being in the wrong sexed body

true hermaphrodite

a person who has one testis and one ovary. External appearance may vary

Wolffian ducts

embryonic structures that develop into male sexual and reproductive organs if male hormones are present


only until marriage education: an approach to educating young people that emphasizes the need to abstain from sexual relations until marriage


period of emotional, social, and physical transition from childhood to adulthood

comprehensive sexuality education

an approach to educating young people about human sexuality that includes information about sexuality but also encourages clarifying values and developing decision-making skills

cognitive susceptibility

state of mind, identified by psychological and situational factors


the process by which an individual extinguishes a response to one stimulus while preserving it for other stimuli

dyadic withdrawal

the tendency of two people involved in an intimate relationship to withdraw socially for a time from other significant people in their lives

erogenous zone

any area of the body that is sensitive to sexual arousal


application of specific learned responses to other similar situations or experiences

integrated sexuality education programs

this concept emphasizes the possibility of combining education to prevent pregnancy and the transmission of diseases with realistic approaches to education young people about sexuality and how to make safer decisions about sex

latency period

Freudian concept that during middle childhood, sexual energies are dormant


a term fist used by Freud to define human sexual longing, or sex drive

psychosexual development

factors that form a person's sexual feelings, orientations, and patterns of behavior


in conditioning theory, any influence that helps shape future behavior as a punishment or reward stimulus


anything considered not to be normal; that is, not conforming to the subjective standards a social group has established as the norm


relating to feelings or emotions, such as romantic attachemnts


usually characterized by celibacy, this philosophy emphasizes spiritual purity through self-denial and self-discipline


prejudice, negative attitudes, and misconceptions relating to bisexual people and their lifestyles


refers to some degree of sexual activity with or attraction to members of both sexes


heterosexual, penis-in-vagina intercourse


term applied to behaviors or orientations that do not conform to a society's accepted norms; it often has negative connotations


the application of ethnocentric-like judgments to sexual values and behaviors, creating the assumption that our own ways of approaching sexuality are the only "right" ways


the tendency of the members of one culture to assume that their values and norms of behavior are the "right" ones in comparison to other cultures

facilitated sex

assistance provided to a person with severe physical disabilities in order to enable them to achieve sexual pleasure through masturbation or with a partner


sexual activities shared in early stages of sexual arousal with the term implying that they are leading to a more intense, orgasm-oriented form of activity such as intercourse


refers to persons who have a predominantly same-gender sexual orientation and identity. more often applied to males


people who believe that pleasure is the highest good


the biased and discriminatory assumption that people are or should be attracted to members of the other gender


attractions or activities between males and females


strongly held negative attitudes and irrational fears relating to gay men and/or lesbians and their lifestyles


term traditionally applied to affectional and sexual attractions and activities between members of the same gender


refers to females who have a predominantly same-gender sexual orientation and identity

moral values

beilefs associated with ethical issues, or rights and wrongs; they are often a part of sexual decision making


a highly subjective term used to describe sexual behaviors and orientations. Standards of normalcy are determined by social cultural, and historical standards


integration of mentally retarded persons into the social mainstream as much as possible

Standards of normalcy

are determined by social cultural, and historical standards


a newer term used to describe sexual orientations and behaviors that vary from the norm; it means "a love beside


a person paralyzed in the legs, and sometimes pelvic areas, as a result of injury to the spinal cord


a person paralyzed in the upper body, including the arms, and the lower body, as the result of spinal cord injury


giving oneself pleasure, as in masturbation; a term typically used today instead of more negative descriptions


self-gratification; masturbation

sexual individuality

the unique set of sexual needs, orientations, fantasies, feelings, and activities that develops in each human being


slang term for heterosexual


an individual who dresses in clothing and adopts mannerisms considered appropriate for the opposite sex


negative attitudes, prejudice, and misconceptions toward transgender individuals and lifestyles


system of belief with which people view life and make decisions, including their sexual decisions


a less pejorative term to describe nonconformity to accepted norms


brain secretions that act as natural tranquilizers and pain relievers


a chemical produced by the brain in response to physical intimacy and sexual satisfaction


human chemicals, the scent of which may cause an attraction or behaviroal change in other individuals