HUMAN SEXUALITY

Efforts to control conception began

D. at least as far back as recorded history

Who is credited with making birth control available in the United States in the late 19th and 20th centuries?

B. Margaret Sanger

Research indicates that the rate of sexual activity _________ when condoms are available at no cost at school.

A. Remains stable

A recent cross cultural study showed that women who have few children have

C. More education

Stephanie and Brett are married and want a birth control method that has no side effects, is very inexpensive, and doesn't interrupt their spontaneity during sex. Although they are not really ready to have children yet, if they were to become pregnant that would be all right with them. Based on this information, a good method of birth control for them would be...

C. the mucus method

Of the following, which is the least effective birth control method when used correctly and consistently?

D. diaphragm and spermicide

With respect to contraceptive failure

B. this occurs more with low-income women than the more affluent

Which of the following methods of birth control would a woman want to avoid if she is concerned about pelvic inflammatory?

D. IUD

_______ releases a constant dose of estrogen and progestin

A. the combination pill

All of the following are advantages of taking birth control pills except

A. reducing the possibility of hypertension

Both the vaginal ring and the transdermal patch work by

C. slowly releasing hormones into the bloodstream

In order to confirm that the IUD is in place, the length of the ______ should be checked.

C. String

There is less chance of condom breaking if it is

B. lubricated

Which of the following statements regarding the female condom is false?

C. it comes with spermicide on it

Tubal sterilization involves

A. severing, cauterizing, or placing a clip on the Fallopian tubes

According to various sources, a woman may insert a diaphragm as long as _______ prior to intercourse and have it still be effective

B. six hours

Fertility awareness is also referred to as

B. natural family planning

Margaret Sanger

the person most instrumental in promoting changes in birth control legislation and availability in the US

Failure Rate

the number of women out of 100 who become pregnant by the end of 1 year of using a particular contraceptive

Backup method

contraceptive methods used simultaneously with another method to support it

Circumstances for needing back up

during the first cycle of the pillfor the remainder of the cycle, after forgetting to take two or more birth control pills or after several days of diarrhea or vomiting while on the pillthe first month after changing to a new brand of pillswhen taking medications, such as antibiotics, that reduce the effectiveness of the pillduring the initial 1 to 3 months after IUD insertionwhen first learning to use a new method of birth controlwhen the couple wants to increase the effectiveness of contraception

Outercourse

non-coital forms of sexual intimacy

Hormone based birth control methods

oral contraceptivesthe vaginal ringthe transdermal patchinjected contraceptioncontraceptive implants

Oral contraceptives

the constant-dose combination pillthe triphasic pillthe extended cycle pillprogestin-only pill

Constant dose combination pill

birth control pill that contains a constant daily dose of estrogen

Triphasic pill

birth control pill that varies the dosages of estrogen and progestin during the menstrual cycle

Seasonale

birth control pill that reduces menstrual periods to four times a year

Progestin only pill

contraceptive pill that contains a small dose of progestin and no estrogen

NuvaRing and Ortho Evra are two hormone based contraceptive methods that do not require taking a pill each day

...

Both nuvaring and orth evra release the hormones embedded in the through the vaginal lining or skin into the bloodstream

...

Depo-provera

injectable hormone based contraceptive

Implanon

contraceptive implant; a matchstick size slender rod 11/2 inches long

Condom

a sheath that fits over the penis and is used for protection against unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections

Vaginal spermicides

Foam, cream, jelly, suppositories, and film that contain a chemical that kills sperm

Intrauterine device (IUD)

a small, plastic device that is inserted into the uterus for contraception

Emergency contraception

hormone pills or an IUD that can be used after unprotected intercourse to prevent pregnancy

Fertility awareness methods

birth control methods that use the signs of cyclic fertility to prevent or plan conception

Standard days method

a birth control method that requires couples to avoid unprotected intercourse for a 12 day period in the middle of the menstrual cycle

Mucus method

a birth control method based on determining the time of ovulation by means of cyclical changes in the cervical mucus

Calendar method

a birth control method based on abstinence from intercourse during calendar-estimated fertile days

Basal body temperature method

a birth control method based on body temperature changes before and after ovulation

Tubal sterilization

female sterilization accomplished by severing or tying the fallopian tubes

Transcervical sterilization

a method of female sterilization using a tiny coil that is inserted through the vagina, cervix, and uterus into the fallopian tubes

Vasectomy

male sterilization accomplished by cutting and closing each vas deferens

For most people the capacity for sexual response is present from birth

...

The data on childhood sexuality are scarce. Research in this area is limited by a number of factors, not the least of which is the difficulty of obtaining financial support for basic research on childhood sexuality, and federal guidelines in the US either prohibit such studies or make them considerably difficult to conduct

...

Masturbation is one of the most common and natural forms of sexual expression during the childhood years

...

Puberty

a period of rapid physical changes in early adolescence during which the reproductive organs mature

Gonadotropins

Pituitary hormones that stimulate activity in the gonads (testes and ovaries)

Secondary sex characteristics

the physical characteristics other than genital development that indicate sexual maturity, such as body hair, breasts, and deepened voices

Menarche

First menstrual period

Sexual double standard

different standards of sexual permissiveness for women and men, with more restrictive standards almost always applied to women

Noncoital sex

physical contact, including kidding, touching, and manual or oral-genital stimulation-but excluding coitus

Sexting

sending sexually suggestive photos or text messages via the Internet, cell phones, or other electronic devices

Premarital sex

defined as penile-vaginal intercourse that takes place between partners before they are married

Premarital is misleading for 2 reasons:

1) as a measure that is frequently used to indicate the changing sexual or moral values of American youth, it excludes a broad array of non-coital heterosexual and homosexual activities2) the term premarital has connotations that may seem highly inappropriate to some people

Multi-person sex (MPS)

Adolescent sexual interaction involving multiple simultaneous partners that may be either consensual or forced

Remaining single is an increasingly prominent lifestyle in the United States

...

Friends with benefits (FWB)

relationships with a blend of friendship and physical intimacy outside a committed romantic relationship

Cohabitation

living together and having a sexual relationship without being married

Domestic partnership

an unmarried couple living in the same household in a common relationship

Polygamy

a marriage between one man and several women

Matriarchal Society

a society in which women carry the family name through generations, and women govern the economic and social affairs of the community

Miscegenation

sex between members of different races, whether or not the people involved were married

Predicting Marital satisfaction

A ration of at least five positive interactions to each negative interactionfacial expressions of disgust, fear, or miseryhigh levels of heart ratedefensive behaviors, such as making excuses and denying responsibility for disagreementVerbal expressions of contempt by the wifeStonewalling by the husband (showing no response when his wife expresses her concerns)

DINS

Dual income, no sex

Non-monogamy

sexual interaction outside a couple relationship

Consensual extramarital relationship

a sexual relationship that occurs outside the marriage bond with the consent of one's spouse

Swinging

the exchange of marital partners for sexual interaction

Hotwifing

a couple enjoys the women having sexual contact with one or more men, even though the male partner is sexually exclusive to his partners

Open marriage

A marriage in which spouses, with each others permission, have intimate relationships with other people as well as with the marital partner

Polyamory

Multiple consensual sexual relationships of trios, groups of couples, and intentionally created families that emphasize emotional commitment

Nonconsensual extramarital sex

Sexual interaction in which a married person engages in an outside sexual relationships without the consent of his or her spouse

Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD)

lack of interest prior to and during sexual activity

Sexual aversion disorder

extreme and irrational fear of sexual activity

Female genital sexual arousal

persistent inability to attain or maintain the lubrication-swelling response

Female subjective sexual arousal disorder

absent or diminished awareness of physical arousal

Combined genital and subjective sexual arousal disorder

absent or diminished subjective and physical sexual arousal

Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD)

Spontaneous, intrusive, and unwanted genital arousal

Erectile disorder (ED)

Consistent or recurring lack of an erection sufficiently rigid for penetrative sex, for a period of at least 3 months

Female orgasmic disorder

the absence, marked delay, or diminished intensity of orgasm

Situational female orgasmic disorder

orgasmic when masturbating but not when stimulated by a partner

Male orgasmic disorder

the inability of a man to ejaculate during sexual stimulation from his partner

Male Coital anorgasmia

difficulty with orgasm only during intercourse

Partner anorgasmia

difficulty with orgasm by partner manual and oral stimulation

Premature ejaculation (PE)

a pattern of ejaculations within 1 minute and an inability to delay ejaculation, resulting in a man's impairing his or his partner's pleasure

Dyspareunia

pain or physical discomfort during sexual intercourse

Peyronie's disease

Abnormal fibrous tissue and calcium deposits in the penis. Usually caused by traumatic bending of the penis during intercourse, or by medical procedures involving the urethra

Vestibulodynia

a small area at the entrance of the vagina that causes severe pain

Vaginismus

involuntary spasmodic contractions of the muscles of the outer third of the vagina

Diabetes

a disease of the endocrine system that results when the pancreas fails to secrete adequate amounts of insulin or when cells in the body are insulin resistant

Retrograde ejaculation

ejaculating into the bladder

Cancer

can impair hormonal, vascular, and neurological functions necessary for normal sexual interest and response

Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

a neurological disease of the brain and the spinal cord in which damage occurs to the myelin sheath that covers nerve fibers

Stroke

occur when brain tissue is destroyed as a result of either blockage of the blood supply to the brain or hemorrhage, causing internal bleeding

Antidepressants called SSRIs cause reduced sexual interest and arousal and delayed or absent orgasm in up to 60% users

...

Medications prescribed for high blood pressure can cause problems with desire, arousal, and orgasm

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Prescription gastrointestinal and antihistamine medications can interfere with desire and arousal function

...

People with spinal cord injuries (SCIs) have reduced motor control and sensation because the damage to the spinal cord obstructs the neural pathways between body and brain

...

Cerebral Palsy (CP)

caused by damage to the brain that can occur before or during birth of during early childhood

The sensory losses of blindness and deafness can affect a person's sexuality primarily when the visual or hearing deficits interfere with learning the subtleties of social interaction skills and with a person's independence

...

Self concept

refers to the feelings and beliefs we have about ourselves

Emotional intelligence

the ability to identify, feel comfortable with, and manage one's emotions

Sensate focus

a process of touching and communication used to enhance sexual pleasure and to reduce performance pressure

Stop start technique

a treatment technique for premature ejaculation, consisting of stimulation the penis to the point of impending orgasm and then stopping until the pre-ejaculatory sensations subside