Criminology units 5-8

White collar crime

a crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation

Occupational Crimes

crimes committed by an individual for personal gain and profit during the course of their occupation. Example, someone stealing materials or money from their work in order to get money for themselves.

Corporate crimes

crimes committed by companies and businesses. Although people who work for the company commit the crimes, the main benefit is the company and not the individual. Also called organizational crime.

Individual occupational crime

crimes by individuals as individuals for profit or other gain. Stealing company equipment or filing false expense reports would fall into this category.

Professional occupational crime

crimes done by professionals in their professional occupation. Example, a doctor might over bill an insurance company to gain more profits.

State authority occupational crime

crimes by officials through the authority of the office. This category is restricted to those holding public office and their employees. Accepting bribes in return for political favors would be an example in this category.

Organizational occupational crime

this includes crimes done by individuals but the benefit goes to the organization rather than the individual.

Pilferage

the theft of materials, equipment, merch, or stationary.

Embezzlement

the theft or misuse of company funds

False advertising

making false or illegal claims about a product.

Restraint of trade

the practice of preventing competing companies from starting or making them go out of business if they start up.

Price-fixing

involves the agreement on the part of multiple corporations to charge a particular price for a good or service.

Organized crime

an operation run by criminals that's primary source of income is illegal activities (the mafia).

Public order crimes

those that affect society's ability to operate and people's ability to function. Crimes that go against at least one of society's norms or values.

Wickersham Report

a study of the administration of justice.

Criminal justice system

includes the police, courts, and corrections. The various parts of the system are interrelated to each other and work together to form the whole system of criminal justice.

General deterrence

the idea that if people see the punishments given to offenders that they will be less likely to commit crimes themselves

Specific deterrence

occurs when a specific person is punished harshly for their crimes to hopefully prevent them from repeating the crime.

Incapacitation

offers a societal protection by taking offenders and placing them in a controlled environment where they are not able to harm society. The most extreme form of this is the death penalty.

Probable cause

the person's potential guilt of a crime is high enough to "seize" them.

Exclusionary rule

prohibits the use of evidence in a criminal case that has been gathered illegally.

Miranda warning

tells the person arrested about their rights.

Preliminary Hearing

a preview of the trial in front of a judge for the court case to follow.

Grand Jury

a panel of citizens who hear the prosecution's case in secret hearings and decide whether the individual should be formally charged.

Plea Bargain

the defendant pleads guilty to a reduced or modified plea, which eliminates the need for a trial and often gives the defendant a more lenient punishment for the crime.

Sentencing Guidelines

used by judges to determine the type of punishment and its length based on the crime and mitigating circumstances.

Probation

one alternative to prison and offers the person the ability to stay within the community as long as certain rules and conditions are met.

Alternative sanctions

includes the so called boot camps that offenders, particularly juveniles, may be sent to.

Parole

a supervised release before the person's sentence officially ends.

Direct file

the power by prosecutors to directly try juveniles in adult courts.

Crime control model

indicates that the criminal justice system has the goal of apprehending and punishing those who commit crimes.

Due process model

argues that the criminal justice system has to protect suspects from errors and the abuses that can occur in the system.

Police subculture

a set of norms and values governing police behavior.

Racial Profiling

different treatment based on a person's race or ethnicity.

Community Policing

programs and policies that partner law enforcement with the communities that they serve.

Police-community relations programs

different from community policing in that they aim to change the community's perceptions of law enforcement but not change the way policing is done. Includes police officers visiting schools, allowing people rides in police cars, and tours of police headquarters.

Courts of Limited Jurisdiction

these courts handle minor criminal cases, traffic violations, and less serious civil suits.

Justice of the Peace

a judge, not necessarily trained in the law, who oversees more minor cases.

Courts of General Jurisdiction

these courts are major trial courts that have jurisdiction over all cases.

Appellate Courts

these courts have the power to review any judgement made in the other courts of the state system.

State supreme courts

the court of last resort and consists of five to nine judges who review cases.

Federal courts

those that enforce and uphold federal laws

Federal Magistrates

the lowest level of jurisdiction in the federal system.

District Courts

these courts have both civil and criminal jurisdiction at the federal level.

Circuit Court of Appeals

these courts hear the appeals for individuals convicted in the district courts.

The Supreme Court

this court has the highest and final authority in the interpretation and application of the Constitution in the US.

Trial Jury

a group of people legally selected who are sworn to give their verdict based on the evidence of the case.

Peremptory Challenges

objections to a juror for which no reason has to be offered.

Challenges for cause

objections to jurors for conflicts of interests.

Wrongful executions

those in which the person executed for a crime didn't commit the crime.

Detention Facilities

handle individuals who have been arrested and are going through processing or awaiting trial.

Correctional Facilities

the prisons where convicted offenders serve out their sentences.

Jails

facilities that hold individuals for up to one year and are administered by local officials.

Prisons

facilities that hold those who are serving sentences of over one year.

Prison Hulks

decommissioned ships that were used to hold offenders.

Penitentiary

a site of confinement and corrections for offenders.

Reformatories

institutions designed to reform offenders through things like vocational training and education.

Deprivation model

suggests that the prison subculture develops to help prisoners adjust to life behind bars.

Prisonization

the process of learning the prison society and its expectations

Inmate code

informal rules and norms that reflect the values of the prison society

Prison Argot

a unique vocabulary that is used by prisoners when they enter the system.

Hustling

obtaining goods that are unavailable through legitimate prison means

Parole

the conditional release of an offender after they have served some of their time

Parole board

makes the decision about whether to release a prisoner. Usually made up of respected citizens

Parole Hearing

at this hearing, the parole board reviews the offender's case, psychiatrists reports about whether they feel the individual should be released, and other information.

Revocation of parole

the return of a person on parole to prison for not meeting the conditions of parole or for committing another crime.

Parole officer

supervises the person released from prison

Probation

the release of an offender into the community under the supervision of someone else and on the condition that the offender follow certain rules such as not committing anymore crimes and holding down a job.

Probation officers

monitor offenders in the community.

Restitution

compensation (often money) that the offender gives to the victim for losses or harm in the crime

House arrest

a sentence where offenders are confined to their own homes for the length of the sentence.

Electronic Monitoring

used to determine if the individual is staying in the proper place

Community service

occurs when the sentencing judge requires the offender to perform duties in the community