label diagram

The process by which two gametes fuse to become a zygote, which develops into a new organism.


__ a mature female reproductive cell, of an animal, that can divide to give rise to an embryo usually only after fertilization by a male cell; also called an egg.


____ :a motile male gamete of an animal usually with rounded or elongate head and a long posterior flagellum.


____ is the process by which the nucleus divides in all sexually reproducing organisms during the production of gametes. These cells have a single set of chromosomes and are called haploid.


A female mammal has the following symbols representing her "sex chromosomes." __


The chromosome number in a horse somatic cell is _________ and in a horse gamete is ____

64, 32

_____ is a type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus, typical of ordinary tissue growth.


_____ is the process of male gamete formation.


In most male mammals the testes must be ____ degrees F below body temperature to be capable of producing viable spermatozoa.


_______ is the process where female gametes are produced (a few at a time) in the follicles of the ovaries.
The female has a fixed number of primary oocytes at or soon after birth.


The male reproductive cells are formed in the ____


In most mammals, the testes are located outside body in a skin sack known as the ___


The principle androgen produced in the interstitial cells of the seminiferous tubules is _________


Spermatozoa are produced in the _________________ of the testes

seminiferous tubules

The ________ is an organelle that develops over the anterior half of the head in the spermatozoa. It is a cap-like structure whose function includes assisting the sperm in penetrating the protective coat of the egg during fertilization.


____ is the fetal ligament (connective tissue) that attaches at one end to the testes and at the other to the scrotum helping to pull it through the inguinal canal shortly before or shortly after birth (species dependent).


The _________ _______ is the cord-like structure in males formed by the vas deferens (ductus deferens) and surrounding tissue (blood vessels and nerves) that run from the deep inguinal ring down to each testicle. I

Spermatic cord

______ ______ support developing spermatids and shield from body's immune system within the testis.

Nurse cells
Sertoli cells

______ is the storage site for spermatozoa and a final place for them to mature within the male. It is a flat ribbon-like structure that lies along the surface of the testis.


The _______ ______ are paired tubes that move the spermatozoa from the epididymis up to the urethra when ejaculation occurs. Spermatozoa are mixed with secretions from three accessory glands creating semen.

Vas Deferens

In the male there are _______ _______ glands that produce an alkaline fluid to help counteract the acidity of female reproductive tract. The fluid contains electrolytes, fructose, and prostaglandins,

Accessory Reproductive

The three Accessory Reproductive Glands found in most male mammals include:
______________ ___________, ____________ gland, and _______________ glands

Seminal vesicles, prostate, Cowper's
Seminal vesicles, prostate, bulbourethral

The _______ ________are either of the two columns of erectile tissue forming the body of the penis or clitoris

corpus cavernosum

_____ is the sheath of skin that encloses the penis when it is not erect


The ______ ______ is a bone in the penis of carnivores and some other mammals.

os penis

The ________ __________ is the s-shaped curvature of the penis when it is retracted in the body in the ruminant male.

Sigmoid Flexure

The ______________ _________________ of the uterus is the wide fold of peritoneum that connects the sides of the uterus to the walls and floor of the pelvis.

broad ligament

The _________ is that portion of the fold of peritoneum that supports the oviduct.


Two steroid hormones produced by the ovary are _____________ and _____________

progesterone, estrogen

In _________ species the ovaries produce multiple ova per cycle.


Women, cows and mares are examples of multiparous species.


_________ __________ hormone is produced in the anterior pituitary gland and is responsible for stimulating the growth of the ovum-containing follicles in the ovary and activates sperm-forming cells in the testis.

Follicle Stimulating

_________ hormone is produced in the anterior pituitary gland and is responsible for the release of the ovum during ovulation and for the development of corpora lutea.


________ hormone is produced in the anterior pituitary gland in the male and responsible for the development of interstitial tissue in the testis which stimulates the Leydig cell production of testosterone.


Induced ovulators are mammals who ovulate ONLY after breeding. They include animals such as the _________


The ___________ position is utilized by members of the camelid family during mating.


_______ is the step in the maturation of mammalian spermatozoa required to render them competent to fertilize an oocyte. During the process the glycoprotein coat and the seminal proteins are removed from the surface of the sperm's acrosome by substances s


____ occurs when one spermatozoon will physically penetrate the cell membrane of the ovum.


Once the ovum is fertilized and the male pronucleus and female pronucleus are joined (each containing a haploid chromosome number) a _____________ is formed (containing a diploid chromosome number).


_______ is the series of events following implantation of the embryo and leading to development of the placenta


________ is the outer most membrane enclosing the embryo in placental mammals; it contributes to the development of the placenta.


_____ attachment of the placenta to the uterine wall in ruminants.


The _________ placenta takes the form of a complete or incomplete band of tissue surrounding the fetus. Seen in anatomical carnivores like dogs and cats, seals, bears, and elephants.


___ is a sticky white or yellow fluid secreted by the mammary gland several days before and for a few days after birth, prior to the production of milk. It is high in protective antibodies that boost the newborn's immune system.


___ are the milk-secreting units of mammary gland


__ is the main hormone responsible for the production of milk.


_____ the milk let-down hormone


________ is the hormone that STOPS the milk let down hormone from working.


_______________ and ______________ are two hormones produced by the hypothalamus but stored in the posterior pituitary gland.

Antidiuretic hormone, oxytocin

Be able to list the seven major hormones produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; site their primary target organ and their primary function.

Adrenocorticotropic hormone
Thyroid stimulating hormone
Growth hormone
melanocyte-stimulating hormone
Follicle stimulating hormone
Luteinizing hormone

_____ is the uterine type found in women


This portion of the female reproductive tract serves as the birth canal during parturition ________


_____ is the homologue to the penis in the female.


___ is an example of a seasonal polyestrous animal.


____ is an example of a non-seasonal polyestrous animal


______ is also known as the first water bag

Chorionic sac

During this phase of the estrous cycle, FSH is released and one or more follicles is increasing in size on the ovary. _____


During ________ (phase of the estrous cycle), the female is receptive to the male for breeding.


_______ is an example of a reflex-ovulator (Induced ovulator.)

Black Bears

____ hormone secreted during the Diestrus phase of the cycle.


________ meaning implantation of the embryo into the uterine wall.


____ days is the length of pregnancy in a cow.


_____ is the length of pregnancy in an elephant.

20-22 months

___ days is the length of pregnancy in a sow.


_______________ this hormone produced by the hypothalamus travels to the anterior pituitary gland to stimulate the release of the gonadotropins _____ and _____.


One of the main functions of the hormone _________ , produced in the hypothalamus, is to regulate the secretion of hormones coming from the pituitary gland, including growth hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone.


The concentration of our urine is controlled by a hormone called ________ produced by the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary gland. When released it travels into the bloodstream to the kidneys where it prevents the production of dilute uri

antidiuretic hormone

___ = the "S" curve in the penis of a ruminant.

Sigmoid Flexure

_____ term meaning difficult birth


_____ ______ of beef cows and heifers is a program in which an artificially induced hormone or chemical agent causes groups of sexually mature and cycling females to come into heat (estrus) and ovulate at approximately the same time.

Estrus synchronization

_____, usually is defined as failure to expel fetal membranes within 24 hr after parturition. Normally, expulsion occurs within 3-8 hr after calf delivery. The incidence in healthy dairy cows is 5%-15%, whereas the incidence in beef cows is lower.

retained placenta

This release of the hormone _____ functions to destroy the corpus luteum (CL). The CL is a structure in the ovary that produces the hormone progesterone and prevents the animal from returning to estrus. ... Despite these limitations, this hormone is utili


_____ is the primary female sex hormone responsible for the development and regulation of the female reproductive system and secondary sex characteristics. The main site of production is the ovary.


______ It is the caudal most part of the uterus and is made up of strong muscles. It is sometimes referred to as the neck of the uterus. Its opening is normally very narrow and helps to keep foreign material out of the uterus during pregnancy.


What is the initial hormone produced by the fetus to trigger parturition? _______


______ ______ is the most common method used (currently) for determining pregnancy diagnosis in horses, beef cattle and in dairy cattle.

Rectal palpation

Average time for nidation in dairy cows is ____ days after fertilization.


The exact location of fertilization in most farm and other domestic animals is the ______ ______ ______.

isthmus - ampulla junction

The hormone ______ helps control blood glucose levels by signaling the liver and muscle and fat cells to take in glucose from the blood. The hormone therefore helps cells to take in glucose to be used for energy. If the body has sufficient energy, the hor


These two catecholamines _______ and ______ are produced by the adrenal medulla.

epinephrine, norepinephrine

These two Glucocorticoids (steroid hormones), _______ and ______ are produced by the adrenal cortex and function in anti-inflammatory effects.

cortisone, hydrocortisone

If decreased blood pressure is detected, the adrenal gland is stimulated by these stretch receptors to release the hormone, _______, which increases sodium reabsorption from the urine, sweat, and the gut. This causes increased osmolarity in the extracellu


In both the male and female animal, androgens are produced by the adrenal cortex.


Extra Credit