biochem notes

atoms

Building blocks of matter

protons

positive charge

neutrons

no charge

electrons

negative charge

element

pure substance that can't be broken down

isotopes

atoms w the element and same number of protons/electrons but different number of neutrons

compound

pure substance formed when 2 or more different elements combine

covalent bond

A chemical bond formed when two atoms share electrons

ion

A charged atom

enzymes

Proteins that speed up chemical reactions

reactions

starting substances

products

formed during reaction

activation energy

minimum amount of energy for reactants to form

catalyst

lowers activation energy

Macromolecules

large molecules that are formed by joining smaller organic molecules together

polymers

made up of monomers

Carbohydrates

the starches and sugars present in foods

lipids

fats, oils, waxes

proteins

Chains of amino acids

nucleic acids

DNA and RNA