richard test 2/2

haploid gametes

n = 23 (in people)

diploid gametes

2n = 46

hollow ring of cells. how all humans start off as


overtime the blastula folds in upon itself and becomes more of a solid mass of cells


_________ different phyla


_____ of all species are invertebrates


______ of all species are vertebrates


is the phyla of kingdom animalia a diverse group of organisms?


simplest of the animals

phylum porifera

- lacks true tissue and organs
- body has two layers of cells separated by a jelly-like material
- adults are sessile (cant move)

phylum porifera

how does phylum porifera use toxins as chemical defenses?

these can get release in the water OR it is just apart of the sponges body

what type of organism is apart of
phylum proifera?


what type of organism is apart of phylum cnidaria/coelenterata?


are the organisms in phylum cnidaria mobile?

they move around in the water, but they are not really mobile. they use the current

if you cut a circle in any way, youll have two sides similar to each other

radial symmetry

- have radial symmetry
- have tentacles with sting cells cnidocytes
- have two different body forms

phylum cnidaria

these have a toxin in them. the toxin paralyzes its prey.


what are the two different body forms in phylum cnidaria?


cylinder body type


umbrella shaped body


- have bilateral symmetry (equal on left and right side)
- has eyespots that detect light
- divided into three different classes

phylum platyhelminthes

what are the three different classes in phylum platyhelminthes?

1. class turbellaria
2. class trematoda
3. class cestoidea

free living non parasites

class turbellaria

flukes (a problem with sheep)

class trematoda

tapeworms live in your intestines. can also get this from uncooked pork

class cestoidea

which phylum has roundworms?

phylum nematoda

- many are free living
- some are parasites of plant roots
- can cause trichinosis in humans
- can be parasites of humans

phylum nematoda

feed on material in digestive system


- probably the organisms that Leeuwenhoek observed in pond water
- were called "wheel animacules" back then
- most are rounded animals and spin
- small
- can ONLY find them under a microscope

phylum rotifera

- species divided into three classes
- name means little rings
- segmented worms and leeches
- bilaterally symmetrical
- closed circulatory system

phylum annelida

blood in their body remains in a vessel the whole time

closed circulatory system

what organisms are apart of
phylum mollusca?

oyster, clams, squid

- open circulatory system
- contains a rasping organ called a radula
- contains three classes
- out of the three classes, only land snails and slugs live on land

phylum mollusca

causes organisms to feed on other small fish to feed on the organism inside the shell

radula process

what are the three classes of
phylum mollusca?

- class bivalvia
- class gastropoda
- class cephalapoda

- called bivalves which are hinged shells with two halves
- clams and oysters
- they feed by opening and closing their shells

class bivalvia

- snails
- largest group of mollusks
- spiral shaped shell
- contains the terrestrial species(ones that live on land)

class gastropoda

- very fast
- marine predators
- small reduced shell or no shell
- squid and octopus

class cephalapoda

- have an endoskeleton (skeleton is on inside of body)
- have a water vascular system
- slow moving and star shaped
- have a larval stafe
- adults have radial symmetry

phylum echinodermata

they pump water through this system in order to get food or move around

water vascular system

they can break off their arms and regrow it or regrow organs


the adult stage and larval stage will not look alike but they are the same thing

larval stage

what are some of the general characteristics of the animal kingdom?

- most complex of all kingdoms
- multicellular
- they obtain food from outside sources (heterotrophs)
- they move from place to place to get food
- they swallow their food and they digest food inside their body

which organisms do not have a nervous system?

plants and fungi

why is the animal kingdom the most complex of all kingdoms?

mostly because of the nervous system

humans are ____________ heterotrophs while fungi are ______________ heterotrops


animal that does not have a backbone


animal that has a backbone


list the 9 phylums of the animal kingdom?

segmented worms

means having pores


- sac like body
- have tentacles


what are the three different phyla of worms?

- flatworms
- roundworms
- segmented worms

- hard shell surrounding soft body parts
- live in water and damp places
- only a few DO NOT have shells (sea slug and octopus)


means spiny-skin


- makes up 75% of the animal kingdom
- similar to humans but not the same


- vertebrates
- 5% of animal kingdom


what are the general characteristics of phylum arthropoda?

- segmented bodies with distinct groupings
- jointed appendages
- hard external skeletons (exoskeleton)
- molting
- open circulatory system

a protein mixed with a sugar; it is hard (ex:beetle)


a waterproof fat


what are the two parts of the exoskeleton?


regrowing another skeleton. another layer of chitin under the old one


their blood washes over their internal organs

open circulatory system

what contains crawfish, crabs, lobster, and shrimp?


what are characteristics of crustaceans?

- mostly aquatic
- hard exoskeleton made of chitin
- has specialization of appendages

what is a type of crustacean?


ten legs


- two body regions
- very hard exoskeleton reinforced with calcium carbonate
- has a carapace covering the cephlathorax


calcium carbonate


dome shaped shell on crawfish


what are the most common of arthropods?


- most arthropods live on land
- exoskeleton provides support and prevents water loss
- has three main groups

terrestrial arthropods

what are the three types of terrestrial arthropods?

- archnids
- insects
- myriapods

what is scorpions, spiders, ticks, and mites apart of?


- have two body sections
- 4 pairs of legs
- two pairs of mouth parts


what are the two body sections that are apart of arachnids?


a head and thorax combined


what are the two mouthparts apart of arachnids?


- pretty much fangs
- able to grab something and inject the prey so it is paralyzed


- mouth parts they use to manipulate the prey
- this is the part that actually does the feeding


- hunters OR weavers
- all produce silk


dont spin a web


called sit and wait predators; the spiders who spin the web


- nighttime hunters (nocturnal)
- some are poisonous
- found mostly in deserts


- often microscopic
- many are parasites

mites and ticks

- 6 legs
- 3 body parts
- most have compound eyes
- antennae can detect pheromones
- ability to fly as adults
- diverse feeding habits
- undergo metamorphosis

insect characteristics

what are the three body parts of insect?

head, thorax, abdomen

multiple lenses so that each lens can detect different objects

compound eyes

hormones and chemical symbols




- goes from an egg to nymph to adult
- nymph looks very similar to the adult

incomplete metamorphosis

- goes from egg to larva to adult
- the larva wont look anything like the adult

complete metamorphosis

- more insects than all other animal species
- live in almost every habitat
- rare in the open ocean

class insecta

what are the impact of insects?

depended on for pollination, breaks down organic matter, carriers of disease, and destroy crops

what do insects feed on to break down organic matter?

something that has died

why would we have trouble with crops if we did not have insects?

because we depend on them for pollination

what are the four different defense mechanisms?

camouflage, warning coloration, muellerian mimicry, and batesian mimicry

blends into its surroundings so predators do not find them


- uses this when an insect is dangerous to another insect
- do not taste good to other insects

warning coloration

which two defense mechanisms are very similar?

muellerian mimicry and batesian mimicry

the animal resembles other animals that do not taste good/ are dangerous

muellerian mimicry

what is KPCOFGS?

Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species

What habitat does an arthropod occupy?

the land, the sea, the air

An arthropod is vulnerable to predators during the molting period because ________

its new exoskeleton is soft

an example of an arachnid is a _________


Which insect is NOT classified in the same order as the others? ants, crickets, bees, wasps


the easiest way to tell whether an arthropod is an insect or a spider is to __________

count its legs

Which appendages are found in insects but not in arachnids?


one of the common features of arthropds is a tough _______


The process in which an arthropod sheds its skeleton and manufactures a larger one is called _________


The 3 largest groups of arthropods are the crustaceans, arachnids, and ________


In a lobster, the carapace is the part of the skeleton that covers the _________


An immature grasshopper resembles an adult grasshopper but does not have wings. Therefore, grasshoppers undergo _________ metamorphosis.


In arachnids, the head and the thorax are fused, forming the ____________


During the transition between the larval and adult stages, an insect with complete metamorphosis becomes a ______


Fanglike mouth parts of arachnids are called _________


if a vertebrate is aquatic as a larva and terrestrial as an adult, it is an _________