Give examples of homologous reproductive structures in males and females.
Males- Testis, Penis
Females- Ovaries, Clitoris
Define meiosis. Compare and contrast it to mitosis.
Meiosis- Cell division of reproductive cells
Function of mitosis
- Ensures that all cells in body have same complement of DNA for normal growth and repair
Functions of meiosis
- Number of chromosomes are cut in half (2n to n)
- Introduces genetic diversit
Describe the structure and function of the testes and explain the importance of their location in the scrotum.
Pampiniform Venous Plexus- Venous blood has lower temperature than blood in arteries. These are in close proximity with each other which allows heat to be transferred from the arteries to the veins. This lowers the temperature of blood entering the testis
Compare and contrast the roles of each part of the male reproductive duct system
Seminiferous Tubules- sperm production
Epididymis- sperm moves from seminiferous tubules into epididymis where smooth muscle contracts and passes it along into the ductus deferns
Scrotum -Two components: Superficial fascia containing dartos muscle, and sk
Compare the roles of the male accessory glands.
Seminal Vesicle- releases secretions through ejaculatory duct
Bulbourethral Gland- releases secretions into spongy urethra
Prostate- contracts and releases secretions into prostatic urethra
Discuss the sources and functions of semen.
Semen- mixture of sperm and accessory gland secretions
prostaglandins decrease viscosity of mucous
hormone relaxin and other enzymes enhance sperm motility
suppress female immune response
antibiotic chemicals destroy bacteria
Describe the histology of the seminiferous tubules (sustentocytes, spermatogenic cells, myoid cells, interstitial endocrine cells, and function of each) of the testes and the roles of sustentocytes.
Sustentocytes- form blood testis barrier, provides nutrients for sperm, move spermatocytes and spermatids into lumen, secrete testicular fluid, phagocytize faulty germ cells, regulate spermatogenesis by:
Androgen-binding protein- keeps testosterone levels
Outline the events of spermatogenesis.
In the periphery of the seminiferous tubule, spermatogonia give rise to sperm which will be released into the lumen
Spermatogonia will divide asymmetrically (two different daughter cells). Type A cell will stay in periphery and Type B cell will travel dee
Discuss hormonal regulation of testicular function and the physiological effects of testosterone on male reproductive anatomy.
FSH- stimulates spermatogenesis: travels to sustenocytes and causes them to release ABP. ABP will bind to testosterone and will make sure testosterone is maintained in close proximity to developing spermatogenic cells
LH- Activates endocrine cells, which
Describe the location, structure, and function of the ovaries.
Functions: produce gametes, ova, and sex hormones
Location: located at the end of the fallopian tubes, attached to fimbriae
Structure: indirectly connected to the uterine tube
What is the function of fimbriae?
ovaries release oocyte into peritoneal cavity, but fimbriae create currents which sweep oocytes into uterine tube.
Where does fertilization happen
Ampulla of uterine tube
Name the components of the uterine wall
perimetrium, myometrium, endometrium
What is the function of the myometrium
contracts during childbirth
Which layer becomes shed during menstrual cycle
the functional layer of the endometrium
Which layer contains stem cells and what is their function
basal layer of endometrium, function: form a new functional layer after menstruation ends
In which layer does the embryo implant
Describe the process of oogenesis and compare it to spermatogenesis
1) Production of primary oocytes occurs only in fetus
2) In primary oocytes, meiosis is arrested in late prophase I and resumes only years later (If at all)
3) In secondary oocytes, meiosis is arrested in metaphase II and is only completed if fertilizatio
Describe the stages of follicle development
Primordial Follicle (before birth and beginning of life)
Primary Follicle (throughout life until menopause)
Secondary Follicle (throughout life until menopause)
Early Vesicular Follicle
Granular Follicle (puberty to menopause)
Follicle ruptures, secondary
Describe ovarian cycle phases, and relate them to events of oogenesis
Ovarian cycle= monthly series of events associated with maturation of an egg
Ovarian cycle has 2 phases:
a) Follicular phase:
In this phase the follicles secrete estrogen and one of these follicles will become the dominant follicle (day 1-14). This phase
Which is the stage of the oocyte at the end of the follicular phase/ovulation?
the secondary oocyte (arrested in metaphase II) becomes released during ovulation.
Describe the hormonal regulation of the ovarian cycle during early and midfollicular phase
A) Hypothalamus releases GnRH, which stimulates release of FSH and LH from anterior pituitary
B) FSH activates granulosa cells to release estrogens, LH activates thecal cells to release androgens (which are converted to estrogens by granulosa cells)
Describe the hormonal regulation of the ovarian cycle during late follicular and luteal phase
A) Positive feedback: dominant mature vesicular follicle secretes high levels of estrogens. When the estrogen reaches a threshold it will exert a positive feedback activating hypothalamus (you don't need to know why or how).
B) The positive feedback will
Describe the regulation of Uterine (menstrual) cycle:
A) Menstrual phase (Days 0-4): Functional layer of endometrium of the uterus sheds (menstruation). Ovarian hormone level low.
B) Proliferative phase (Days 5-16): Ovarian follicles produce estrogens that promote the re-building of the functional layer of t
What is the main takeaway from the ovarian and uterine cycles
LH/FSH regulate the ovarian cycle, Estrogen/progesterone regulate uterine cycle
Discuss the physiological effects of estrogens and progesterone.
Effects of estrogens:
promotes oogenesis (production of female gametes) and ovulation
promotes proliferative phase of uterine cycle (see above)
promotes maturation of reproductive organs and breasts
Effects of progesterone:
Regulates uterine cycle (will a