Ch. 37 Geriatric

Conditions that occur commonly in our aging pet population include cardiac disease, respiratory disease, neoplasia, kidney disease, dermatologic disease, orthopedic disease, and metabolic conditions. What other disorders can occur as patient's age?

Oral health abnormalities, vision loss and hearing loss, and urinary and fecal incontinence

Owner complaints of that should prompt a thorough oral examination of the pet include

difficulty chewing, halitosis, and dropping food from mouth

Cats are more likely to develop hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)´┐Ża condition in which the heart muscle becomes ____________.

thickened

Any reports of fatigue, exercise intolerance, collapse, or cough should be investigated further, because all of these may be secondary to _____________ disease.

cardiac

Chronic renal disease is one of the diseases seen most commonly in geriatric patients, especially cats. In addition to causing increased urination, which is called ___________, an increase in water intake may also be seen.

polyuria

Routine screening for proteinuria, and other abnormalities associated with kidney diseases should be a part of wellness exams and any diagnostic evaluation in a senior pet. The veterinary technician should collect what sample to screen for proteinuria?

urine

Clinical signs such as altered sleep-wake cycles, house soiling, confusion, and irritability are signs of ______________.

cognitive dysfunction

________________________ is also known as degenerative joint disease (DJD).

Osteoarthritis

A common disease in middle-aged and older cats, ___________________, leads to an increase in metabolic rate. Clinical signs include increased appetite with concurrent weight loss, polyuria and polydipsia, lack of grooming, and vomiting.

hyperthyroidism

Hypothyroidism is well managed with ___________.

oral thyroid hormone supplementation

Diabetic animals should be checked frequently for ___________.

urinary tract infections

________________, also known as Cushing disease, is caused by excessive production of glucocorticoids, such as cortisol, released from the adrenal cortex.

Hyperadrenocorticism

The most common drug classes that veterinarians prescribe to manage pain in geriatric patients include

opiates, NSAIDs, and steroids

Another name for narcotic drugs is ___________.

opioids

Animals that spend more time on one side than on the other can develop ______________ in the lung lobes on the "down" side, which can lead to respiratory compromise and pneumonia.

atelectasis

Animals should always be in ___________ when fed, to help prevent accidental aspiration of food material or vomitus.

sternal recumbency

Decubital ulcers develop most commonly around the ___________.

elbows, shoulders, and tarsi and hips

Which of the following pieces of advice given to owners about administering subcutaneous fluids to their pet at home is the least accurate?

Sudden changes in the animal's urinary habits can be indicative of fluid overload.

When urine sits in the bladder, especially in a patient that is unable to void on its own, _________ becomes more likely.

cystitis

It is important that owners routinely clean the patient's fur and skin of urine after expressing the bladder to prevent ___________________.

urine scalding

What is the generally accepted age when a dog or cat is considered a "senior" and thus requires special care to prevent age-related degenerating conditions?

7 yrs old

Geriatric patients may see an onset of age-related pain issues. Which of the following is often associated with pain or discomfort in animals?

Tachypnea

Which of the options listed is not typically used to treat a horse with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO)?

Oxygen supplementation

A localized spinal cord injury to segments will often lead to urinary incontinence due to the nerves controlling the external urethral sphincter arising from what location?

S1 S3

What is a sign of excessive glucocorticoid use in an animal?

Increased rates of system infections

What is the most common valvular disease that is present in the heart of the aged horse?

Mitral valve regurgitation

Which medication is contraindicated in cases of corneal ulceration due to equine recurrent uveitis?

Topical glucocorticoids

What is considered good practice to employ when vaccinating a horse that has a history of adverse vaccine hypersensitivity reactions?

Pretreat with patient with an NSAID

Which of the following would not be a valid reason for euthanizing a horse?

The horse is 25 yrs old