Chapter 2: The Earliest Human Societies

sheep and goats

the animals that people first domesticated included:

disease, fire, and floods

the disadvantages of living in a village included:

irrigation and terracing

some early advances in farming included:


the main job of early governments was to maintain this:

the retreat of the glaciers

new lands opened up to early humans thanks to:

agricultural revolution

the shift from food gathering to food production was called...


early farming communities needed to have source of:

complex village

Catal Huyuk is an example of a:

they crossed a land bridge

How did ancient people get from Siberia to modern-day Alaska?


What probably came about due to the need to cooperate in hunting and gathering?


this is a type of artisan


A social class is made up of people with ____________ customs, background, training, or income.

making tools

Which of the following is an example of early technology?

water crops

Irrigation systems are used to...

gathering wild plants

the rise of agriculture marked a shift away from...

dikes and canals

Technology used in ancient irrigation systems included:

they followed animals and seasonal plants

Why did hunter-gatherers often move around?

the spirits of animals killed for food

What did some archaeologists believe that early cave paintings of animals were meant to honor?


the clearing of land for farming by cutting and burning vegetables


a skill in a particular work


a person who moves from place to place


a person trained and skilled in a craft


the watering of crops


ways of creating order and offering leadership


an amount of a good that is in excess for what is needed for survival

a frozen man found in the Alps.

Who is the Iceman?

people settled in areas where there was fertile soil, which was good for growing crops.

How did agriculture encourage the development of villages?