an exchange of ideas that involves a message transmission and response


actual production of speech sounds by coordinating our articulators (tongue, teeth, etc.)




rhythm and route of communication

how fluency should be

smooth, forward flow


sound system of the language


sentence structure


meaning of words (aka how the words are arranged in a sentence)

semantic features

pieces of meaning that come together to form a word


how we use a language

the driving force behind all aspects of language


varies by social and cultural factors


voice (quality)


nonverbal communication

stress and intonation components of speech + nonvocal and nonlinguistic aspects


how your objects and the way you have decorated your enviornment communicate about you to others


body language, body movement, facial expressions, and gestures


study of distance between people as it affects communciation


touching behaviors during communication


effort of time on communication (punctuality, time willing to listen, etc.)


reading and writing


the actual sounds that make up spoken language (oral communication)


the method we use to communicate (can be spoken, written, etc.) it includes form, content, and use

characteristics of language

socially shared tool, rule-governed system, an arbitrary code, generative process, a dynamic scheme (changes over time)

3 months

responds vocally to partner

8 months

begins gesturing

12 months

first spoken words, words fill intentions previously signaled by gestures

18 months

begins combining words on the basis of word-order rules

2 years

begins adding bound morphemes, average length or mean length of utterance (MLU) is 1.5-2.2 morphemes, begins combining 2 words together

3 years

more adult like sentence structure, MLU is 3.0-3.3 morphemes

4 years

begins to change style of talking to fit conversational partner, MLU is 3.6-4.7 morphemes

5 years

90% of language form learned

6 years

begins to learn visual mode of communication with writing and reading


able to participate competently in conversation and telling of narratives, knows multiple meaning of words and figurative language, uses a gender style, or genderlect, when talking

word learning

is highly context-dependent

word learning is highly context-dependent means...

young children will first learn words that they hear and need to use the most in their everyday lives

examples of early intentions of children

wanting demand, protesting, content questioning, verbal accompaniment, greeting/farewell

wanting demand example

says the name of the desired item with an insistent voice, often accompanied by a reaching gesture

protesting example

says "no" or the name of the item while pushing it away, turning away, and/or making a frowning face

content questioning example

asks "what?" or "that?" or "wassat?" while pointing and/or looking at an item

verbal accompaniment example

speech accompanies some action, such as "whee-e-e" when swung or "uh-oh" when something spills

greeting/farewell example

waves hi or bye with accompanying words

intellectual disability

-substantial limitations in intellectual functioning
-significant limitations in adaptive behavior consisting of conceptual, social, and practical skills
-originating before age 18

cause of intellectual disability

possible a combination of biological and socioenvironmental factors

communication impairments of intellectual disability

primarily language

learning disability

a heterogenous group of disorders that are manifested by significant difficulties in the development and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical abilities

specific learning disorder

if if the disorder is focused in one area, such as reading and writing

cause of learning disability

central nervous system ffunctioningthat is NOT caused by biological or environmental factors

specific language impairment (SLI)/developmental language disorder (DLD)

heterogenous, characterized by the absence of all other possible disorders, parts of language are affected (form, semantics, and pragmatics), and can have life-long implications when not identified early

what are the parts of language mot affected in SLIs or DLDs

mainly form, semantics, and pragmatics

autism spectrum disorder (ASD)

Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts, Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities (repetitive motor movements, adherence to routine & ritualized patterns, highly restricted, fixated interests, hypo-activity or hyperactivity to sensory input

when can autism spectrum disorder (ASD) be diagnosed

between 18-30 months of age

what are the causes of autism spectrum disorder

likely biological

what are the language characteristics of of autism spectrum disorder

lack of typical prosody (sound mechanical), echolalia (imitate what they hear), pragmatics and semantics are more affected than form

is there a cure for autism


what are the causes of traumatic brain injury (TBI)

stroke, encephalopathy, epilepsy, external force

what are the symptoms of traumatic

cognitive deficits (perception, memory, higher-level functions {reasoning, problem solving}), physical deficits, linguistics/language deficits (form can be affected, but semantics and pragmatics are often affected the most), and behavioral deficits

are traumatic brain injury (TBI) heterogenous or homogeneous

heterogeneous - some people make nearly a full recovery, others remain in a vegetative state. in general the better the chance at recovery

for traumatic brain injuries in general the smaller the damaged area...

the better the chance at recovery

what are the causes of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and drug-exposedchildren

alcohol and/or drug consumption during pregnancy

is FASD preventable


the safe amount of alcohol during pregnancy is...

no known amount of alcohol is safe during pregnancy

fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are a ________ range (hence spectrum and they have more specific terms used for diagnostic purposes (ex. fetal alcohol syndrome)


many children are _______ diagnosed

not accurately diagnosed

diagnostic criteria for FASD and drug exposed children


doses response rate

the higher the BAC and the longer the exposure, the greater the risk

threshold effect

how much you can drunk (we don't know, so none!)

protective factors that can help somewhat counter the effects

- diagnosis <6 years and immediate services
- nurturing home environment




__________________________________ (doesn't diagnose)


provides enough information to diagnose, allows you to develop a treatment plan and measure progress

steps in assessment

1. obtain a case history and interview
2. observation of child in all environments
3. establish rapport
4. standardized, non-referenced tests
5. dynamic assessment
6. language sampling
- speech sound inventory
- phonological process
- impact on communication/intelligibility
- decide if treatment is necessary & develop a prognosis

dynamic assessment

probing to see if child will be responsive to intervention

obtain a case history and interview entails...

identifying info, birth history, medical history, overall development
milestones, family history of speech and language disorders, current status, presenting concerns, previous action
taken to resolve concerns, languages the child is exposed to, hearing status


effective use of language in everyday situations (needs to generalizes outside of the clinic with SLP)

common preschool language targets for language intervention

- increase complexity of utterances
- work on learning bound morphemes (-ed, -s)
- reduce use of phonological processes/patterns
- develop vocabulary

common school-age language targets for language intervention


treatment strategies for language impairments

- Imitate and interact with child
- Joint attention = shared attention/interest between adult and child
- Self-talk = adult narrates what they (the adult) are doing
- Parallel-talk = adult narrates what child is doing
- Pause
- Model language
- Expand and recast
- Use of Visual supports and AAC
**Note: these intervention strategies do NOT help the child pronounce speech sounds


speech sounds, not the alphabet
**Note: some English phonemes have the same symbol as in the
alphabet, such as /b/, but that is NOT always the case


International Phonetic Alphabet


more constriction, thus more difficult to produce. Characterized by: place, manner, voice


how our articulators come together


how the sound I made (whats the airflow like?)


whats happening with our larynx (voiced or voiceless)


much less constriction, easier to produce. characterized by placement of tongue: front/center/back and high/low

types of errors in articulation impairment

substitution, omission, distortion, addition

final consonant deletion

reduces CVC structure to more familiar CV

final consonant deletion example

cat becomes ca, carrot becomes cara (CVCVC -> CVCV)

weak syllable deletion

reduces number of syllables to conform to the Childs ability to produce multi syllable words

weak syllable deletion example

telephone becomes tephone, baby becomes bebe, mommy becomes mama

consonant cluster reduction

reduces CCV+ structures to the more familiar CV

consonant cluster reduction example

tree becomes te, stay becomes tay


one consonant becomes like altogether, although the vowel is usually not affected

assimilation example

doggie becomes goggie


fricatives (/f/, /v/, /s/, /z/, and others) are replaced by stops (/b/, /p/, /d/, /t/, /g/, /k/)

stopping example

face becomes pace, this becomes dis


velars are replaced with more anteriorly produced sounds

fronting example

go becomes do, ring becomes rin

when are vowels usually mastered

by the age of 2-3

age 2

p, h, n, b, k

age 3

m, w, g, f, d

age 4

t, ? ("sh"), j, ("y")

age 5

s, v, ? ("ng"), r, l, t? ("ch"), z, d? ("j")

age 6

? ("th" in "thin"), � ("th" in "the"), ? ("zh" in "measure")

age 8

consonant blends and clusters

goal of intervention

improve communication effectiveness

the 2 intervention techniques for speech disorders

bottom-up drill approach (simple to complex) and phonological based approach

bottom-up drill approach (simple to complex)

targets 1 sound at a time, includes traditional motor and sensory-motor approach

phonological based approach

targets phonological processes/pattern rather than individual sounds
example of cycles approach: highly structured, begins with most stimulable process/pattern, cycles through one process/pattern at a time until all processes/patterns have been addressed

responsibilities (according to ASHA): for SLP involvement in literacy


what a SLP role will look like in literacy involvement


literacy impairments can affect...

reading, writing, and spelling skills

assessment for literacy impairment

- Case history & Interviews
- Observation (i.e. in classroom)
- Standardized tests and/or reading tests assess:
? Phonological awareness
? Word recognition
? Morphological awareness
? Text comprehension
? Executive Function

literacy treatment for reading

- For young children, focuses on meaning (vocabulary) & form (understanding structures of sentences/sentence formation)
- Activities include print awareness & print-focused reading activities (shared reading and explicitly discussing reading)
- ? Weaknesses found in the 5 assessment areas will also be targeted

skills needed for writing


writing intervention targets


speech disorder

at the sound level, refers to actual pronunciation of the speech sounds. Includes

language disorder

how you use the sounds to form words. Includes vocabulary, grammar, syntax, understanding,


speech sounds used in English (41-34 sounds), written in IPA


alphabet used to represent the sounds in the English language for reading and writing (26 letters)


a physical abnormality that causes problems in speech, language, and/or cognition (e.g. TBI, stroke)

TBI and stroke - functional or organic



we don't know the cause of the disorder (e.g. SSD, SLI)

SSD and SLI - functional or organic


is it possible to have both functional and organic disorders impacting their communication


speech intervention approaches

bottom-up approach, phonological based approach (i.e. cycles approach)

what speech intervention focuses on

actual articulation and physical production of sounds

language intervention

self talk, parallel talk, modeling etc.

what language intervention focuses on

stimulate more complex language production because speech sounds are being produced correctly

phonological awareness

knowledge of the sound system & that words are made up of smaller sounds & syllables

phonemic awareness

Phonemic awareness = what you can do with this knowledge, i.e. sound manipulation like rhyming

at approximately what age does a child say his/her first word

1 year old

what disorder(s) can cause language impairments

autism spectrum disorder, specific language impairment, intellectual disability, and brain injury

the only birth defect thats completely preventable

fetal alcohol syndrome

do all individuals with language-learning disabilities have an intellectual disability


the most recent data from the CDC indicates that autism occurs in...

1 out of 54 children

most speech sound disorders are...


_____ are a family of related sounds


vowels are easier to master/produce than consonants (T/F)


consonant phonemes are classified according to...

manner, place, and voicing

______ consonants are made with the bottom lip and upper teeth in contact


______ is the use of visual modes of communication, specifically reading and writing


one of the responsibilities of the speech-language pathologists for literacy is...

identify children who are at risk of having literacy difficulties

it is important to wait until at least 1st grade to target skills such as print awareness (T/F)


when assessing developmental reading, the assessment should include...

phonological awareness, word recognition, morphological awareness

intervention with young readers should focus on...

word meaning and sentence formation