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Age of Revolution

period of political upheaval beginning roughly with the American Revolution in 1775 and continuing through the French Revolution of 1789 and other movements for change up to 1848

Population Revolution

huge growth in population in western Europe beginning about 1730; prelude to Industrial Revolution; population of France increased 50%, England and Prussia 100%


preliminary shift away from agricultural economy in Europe; workers become full or part time producers of textile and metal products, working at home but in a capitalist system in which materials, work orders, and ultimate sales depended on urban merchant

American Revolution

Rebellion of English American colonies along Atlantic seaboard between 1775-1783; resulted in ndependence for former British colonies and eventual formation of USA

French Revolution

Revolution in France between 1789-1800; resulted in overthrow of Bourbon monarchy and old regimes; ended with establishment of French empire under Napoleon Bonaparte; source of many liberal movements and constitutions in Europe

Louis XVI

Bourbon member of France who was executed furing the radical phase of the French Revolution (1754-1793)

Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen

Adopted during the liberal phase of the French Revolution (1789); stated the fundamental equality of all French citizens; later became a political source for other liberal movements


introduced as a method of human execution; utilized to execute thousands during the most radical phase of the French Revolution known as the Reign of Terror


politcal viewpoint with origins in western Europe; often allied with other "isms"; urged importance of national unity; valued a collective identity based on culture, race, or ethnic origin

Napoleon Bonaparte

Rose within the French army during the wars of the French Revolution; eventually became general; led a coup that ended the French Revolution; established French Empire under his rule; defeated and deposed in 1815

Congress of Vienna

Meeting in the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) to restore political stability in Europe and settle diplomatic disputes


political viewpoint with origins in western Europe during the 19th century; opposed revolutionary goals; advocated restoration of monarchy and defense of church


political viewpoint with origins in western Europe during the 19th century; stressed limitated state interference in individual life; representation of propertied people in government; urged importance of constitutional rule and parliaments


political viewpoint with origins in western Europe during the 19th century; advocated broader voting rights that liberals; in some cases advocated outright democracy; urged reforms in favor of the lower class

Greek revolution

rebellion in Greece against the Ottoman empire in 1820; key step in gradually dismantling the Ottoman empire in the Balkans

Reform Bill of 1832

Legislation passed in Great Britain that extended the vote to most members of the middle class; failed to produce democracy in Britain

Chartist movement

Attempt by artisans and workers in Britain to gain the vote during the 1840s; demands for reform beyond the Reform Bill of 1832 were incorporated into a series of petitions; movement failed

Louis Pasteur

French scientist who discovered relationship between germs and disease in 19th century, leading to better santitation

American civil war

fought from 1861-1865; first application of Industrial Revolution to warfare; resulted in abolition of slavery in the US abd reunification of north and south


political system in late 19th century Italy that promoted alliance of conservatives and liberals; parliamentary deputies of all parties supported the status quo

social question

issues relating to represed classes in western Europe during the Industrial Revolution, particularly workers and women; became more critical than constitutional issues after 1870


political movement with origins in western Europe during the 19th century; urged an attack on private property in the name of equality; wanted state control of means of production, end to capitalist exploitation of the working man

Karl Marx

(1818-1883) German socialist who blasted earlier socialist movements as utopian; saw history as defined by class struggle between groups out of power and those controlling the means of production; preached necessity of social revolution to create proletar


socialist movements that at least tacitly disavowed Marxist revolutionary doctrinel believed social success could be achieved gradually through political institutions

feminist movements

sought various legal and economic gains for women, including equal access to professions and higher education; came to concentrate on right to vote; won support particularly from middle-class women; active in western Europe at the end of the 19th century;

mass leisure culture

an aspect of the later Industrial Revolution; based on newspapers, music halls, popular theater, vacation trips, and team sports

Charles Darwin

biologist who developed theory of evolution of species (1859); argued that all living species evolved into their present form through the abilitty to adapt in a struggle for survival

Albert Einstein

developed mathematical theories to explain the behavior of planetary motion and the movement of electrical particles; after 1900 issued theory of relativity

Sigmund Freud

(1856-1939) Viennese physician who developed theories of the workings of the human subconscious; argued that behavor is determined by impulses


artistic and literary movement of the 19th century in Europe; held that emotion and impression, not reason, were the keys to mysteries of human experience and nature; sought to portary passions, not calm reflection

Tripple Alliance

alliance among Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy at the end of the 19th centur; part of European alliance system and balance of power prior to WWI

Tripple Entente

alliance among Britain, Russia, and France at the outset of the 20th century; part of European alliance system and balance of power prior to WWI

Balkan nationalism

movements to create independent nations within the Balkan possessions of the Ottoman empire; provoked a series of crises within the European alliance system; eventually led to WWI


kingdom that controlled interior regions of Java in 17th century; Dutch East India co paid tribute to the kingdom for the rights of trade at Batvia; weakness of kingdom after 1670s allowed Dutch to exert control over all of Java


Troops that served the British East India co; recruited from various warlike peoples of India

British Raj

British political establishment in India; developed as a result of the rivalry between France and Britain in India


battle in 1757 betwen troops of the British East India co and an Indian army under Siraj ud-daula, ruler of Bengal; British victory resulted in control of northern India

Robert Clive

(1725-1774) architect of British victory at Plassey in 1757; established foundations of Britsh Raj in northern India (18th century)


three districts that made up the bulk of the directly ruled British territories in India; capitals at Madras, Calcutta, and Bombay

princely states

domains of Indian princes allied with the British Raj; agents of East India Co were stationed at the rulers' courts to ensure compliance; made up over 1/3 of the British Indian Empire


name given to British representatives of the East India co who went briefly to India to make fortunes through graft and exploitation

Lord Charles Cornwallis

reformer of the East India Co administration of Infia in the 1790s; reduced power of local British administrators; checked widespread corruption

Ram Mohun Roy

Western-educated Indian leader, early 19th century; cooperated with British to outlaw sati


location of battle fought in 1879 between British and Zulu armies in south Africa; resulted in defeat of British; pne of few victories of African forces over western Europeans

tropial dependencies

the greater portion of the european empires consisting of Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific where smallnumbers of Europeans ruled large populations of non-western peoples

settlement colonies

areas, such as North America and Australia, that were both conquered by European invaders and settled by large numbers of European migrants who made the colonized areas their permanent home and dispersed and decimated the indigenous inhabitants

White Dominions

colonies in which European settlers made up the overwhelming majority of the population; small numbers of native inhabitants were typically reduced by disease and wars of conquest; typical of British holdings in North America and Australia with growing in

white racial supremacy

belief in the inherent mental, moral, and cultural superiority of whites; peaked in acceptance in decades before WWI; supported by social science doctrines of social Darwinists such as Herbert Spencer


british colony in south Africa; developed after Boer trek north from Cape Colony; major commercial outpost of Durban

Boer Republics

transvaal and orange free state in souther Africa; established to assert independence of Boers from British colonial government in Cape Colony in 1850s; discovery of diamonds and precious metals caused British migration into the Boer areas in 1860s

Cecil Rhodes

British entrepeneur in south Africa around 1900; manipulated political situation in south Africa to gain entry to resources of Boer republics; encourage Boer War as means of destroying Bor independence

Anglo-Boer War

fought between 1899 amd 1902 over the continued independence of Boer republics; resulted in British victory, but began the process of decolonization for whites in south Africa

Captain James cook

made voyages to Hawaii from 1777-1779 resulting in opening of islands to the west; convinced Kamehameha to establish unified kingdom in the islands

Holy Alliance

alliance among Russia, Prussiam and Austria in defense of religion and the established order; formed at Congress of Vienna by most conservative monarchies of Europe

Decembrist uprising

political revolt in Russia in 1825; led by middle-level army officers who advocated reforms; put down by tsar Nickolas I

Crimean War

fought between 1854-1856; began as Russian attempt to attack Ottoman empire; Russia opposed by France and Britain as well; resulted in Russian defeat in the face of Western industrial technology; led to Russian reforms under Tsar Alexander II

emancipation of serfs

Tsar Alexander II ended rigorous serfdom in Russia in 1861; serfs obtained no political rights; required to stay in villages until they could repay aristocracy for land


local political councils created as part of reforms of Tsar Alexander II (1860s); gave some Russians, particularly middle-class professionals, some experience in government; councils had no impact on national policy

trans-siberian railroad

constructed in 1870s to connect European Russia with the Pacific; completed by the end of the 1880s; brought Russia into a more active Asian role

Sergei Witte

Russian minister of finance from 1892-1903; economic modernizer responsible for high tariffs, improved banking system; encouraged western investors to build factories in Russia


Russian term denoting articulate intellectuals as a class; 19th century group bent on radical change in Russian political and social system; often wished to maintain a Russian culture distinct from that of the west


political groups seeking abolition of all formal government; formed in many parts of Europe and Americas in late 19th and early 20th centuries; particularly prevalent in Russia, opposing tsarist autocracy and becoming a terrorist movement responsible for

Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov

better known as Lenin; most active Russian Marxist leader; insisted on importance of disciplined revolutionary ccells; leader of Bolshevik revolution of 1917


literally, the majority of the party; the most radical brance of the Russian Marxist movement; led by V.I. Lenin and dedicated to his concept of social revolution; actually a minority in the Russian Marxist political scheme until its triumph in the 1917 r

Russo-Japanese War

war between Japan and Russia (1904-1905) over territory in Manchuria; Japan defeated the Russians, largely because of its naval power; Japan annexed Korea in 1910 as a result of military dominance


national parliament created in Russia in the aftermath of the Revolution of 1905; progressively stripped of power during the reign of Tsar Nicholas II; failed to forestall further revolution

Stolypin reforms

reforms introduced by the Russian interior minister Piotyr Stolypin intended to placate the peasantry in the aftermath of the Revolution of 1905; included reduction in redemption payments, attempt to create market-oriented peasantry


agricultural entrepreneurs who utilized the stolypin and later NEP reforms to increase agricultural production and buy additional land


commoner schools founded during the Tokugwa shogunate in Japan to teach reading, writing, and the rudiments of Confucianism; resulted in high literacy rate, approaching 40% of Japanese males

Dutch studies

group of Japanese scholars interested in implications of Western science and technology beginning in the 17th century; urged freer exchange with west; based studies on few Dutch texts available in Japan

Matthew Perry

American commodore who visted Edo Bay with American fleet in 1853; insisted on opening ports to American trade on threat of naval bombardment; won rights for American trade with Japan in 1854


Japanese parliament established as part of the new constitution of 1889; part of Meiji reforms; could pass laws and approve budgets; able to advise government, but not control it


huge industrial conbines created in Japan in the 1890s as part of the process of industrialization

Sino-Japanese War

war fought between Japan and Qing China between 1894-1895; resulted in Japanese victory; frustrated Japanese imperial aimes because of Western insistence that Japan withdraw from Liaodong peninsula

yellow peril

western term for perceived threat of Japanese imperialism around 1900; met by increased Western imperialism in region